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Author Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 34 Issue Pages 159-163  
  Keywords animals; rodents; metabolism; health  
  Abstract The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24 h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial (down) 1588  
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Author Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Gaston, Kevin J url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biologyology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages 1417-1423  
  Keywords animals; ecosystems; species interaction; human vision  
  Abstract Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial (down) 1584  
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Author Upham, N.S.; Hafner, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do nocturnal rodents in the Great Basin Desert avoid moonlight? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal Journal of Mammalogy  
  Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages 59-72  
  Keywords Animals; Moonlight  
  Abstract Rodents make foraging decisions by balancing demands to acquire energy and mates with the need to avoid predators. To identify variations in the risk of predation, nocturnal rodents may use moonlight as a cue of risk. Moonlight avoidance behaviors have been observed in many nocturnal rodent species and are widely generalized to small mammals. However, most prior studies have been limited to 1 species or 1 study site, or occurred in modified habitats. We evaluated desert rodent activity patterns in natural habitats from 1999 to 2006 at 62 study sites across the Great Basin Desert of western North America. Rodent activity was examined by livetrapping in open habitats, using the presence of the sand-obligate kangaroo mouse (Microdipodops) as a habitat indicator. Activity patterns were assessed on 69 nights with clear skies and compared to corresponding moonlight values (moon phase and brightness) to evaluate the frequency of moonlight avoidance. Analyses of total activity of all species in the rodent assemblage relative to moonlight showed a distinct nonrandom (triangular-shaped) pattern but no significant correlations. However, individual genera of desert rodents responded differently to moonlight. Only kangaroo rats (Dipodomys) displayed significant moonlight avoidance patterns; they were maximally active at significantly different moonlight levels and avoided bright moonlight to a greater extent than co-occurring rodents. Moonlight seemed to limit the activity of kangaroo rats most strongly on bright nights during waxing moon phases and summer seasons, but not significantly during the spring or fall seasons, or during waning moons. Rather than avoiding moonlight, the activity of deer mice (Peromyscus), pocket mice (Perognathus), and kangaroo mice may be governed by changes in competition with kangaroo rats. Differences in the body size, locomotion, and space use of kangaroo rats relative to other rodents may explain why different moonlight responses were detected, especially if these traits alter how rodents perceive risk from bright moonlight. These findings indicate that moonlight avoidance may be a specialized trait of kangaroo rats rather than a general behavior of nocturnal desert rodents in the Great Basin.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-2372 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1555  
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Coyle, W.; Ayers, M.; Kemp, J.; Warfield, B.; Maida, J.; Bowen, C.; Bernecker, C.; Lockley, S.W.; Hanifin, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Acta Astronautica Abbreviated Journal Acta Astronautica  
  Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 21-28  
  Keywords Human Health; Lighting  
  Abstract The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%–100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 &#956;W/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0–1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and safety of astronauts include disturbed circadian rhythms and altered sleep–wake patterns. These studies will help determine if SSLA lighting can be used both to support astronaut vision and serve as an in-flight countermeasure for circadian desynchrony, sleep disruption and cognitive performance deficits on the ISS.  
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  ISSN 0094-5765 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1533  
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Author Jones, A.; Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Szyszka, C.; Kimeswenger, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An advanced scattered moonlight model for Cerro Paranal Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Astronomy & Astrophysics Abbreviated Journal A&A  
  Volume 560 Issue Pages A91  
  Keywords Moonlight  
  Abstract The largest natural source of light at night is the Moon, and it is the major contributor to the astronomical sky background. Being able to accurately predict the sky background, including scattered moonlight is important for scheduling astronomical observations. We have developed an improved scattered moonlight model, in which the components are computed with a better physical understanding as opposed to the simple empirical fit in the frequently used photometric model of Krisciunas & Schaefer (1991, PASP, 103, 1033). Our spectroscopic model can better trace the spectral trends of scattered moonlight for any position of the Moon and target observation. This is the first scattered moonlight model that we know of which is this physical and versatile. We have incorporated an observed solar spectrum, accurate lunar albedo fit, and elaborate scattering and absorption calculations that include scattering off of molecules and aerosols. It was designed for Cerro Paranal, but can be modified for any location with known atmospheric properties. Throughout the optical range, the uncertainty is less than 20%. This advanced scattered moonlight model can predict the amount of scattered moonlight for any given geometry of the Moon and target, and lunar phase for the entire optical spectrum.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6361 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1461  
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