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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible role for TNF Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Molecular Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal
Volume 18 Issue Pages 930-936
Keywords Animals
Abstract The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades and women are twice as likely as men to develop the disorder. Recent environmental changes almost certainly have a role in this phenomenon, but a complete set of contributors remains unspecified. Exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) has surged in prevalence during the past 50 years, coinciding with rising rates of depression. Chronic exposure to LAN is linked to increased risk of breast cancer, obesity and mood disorders, although the relationship to mood is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to 5 lux LAN on depression-like behaviors in female hamsters. Using this model, we also characterized hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and hippocampal dendritic morphology, and investigated the reversibility of these changes 1, 2 or 4 weeks following elimination of LAN. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of action, focusing on hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines given their dual role in synaptic plasticity and the pathogenesis of depression. Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we identified a reversible increase in hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not interleukin-1β, mRNA expression in hamsters exposed to LAN. Direct intracerebroventricular infusion of a dominant-negative inhibitor of soluble TNF, XPro1595, prevented the development of depression-like behavior under LAN, but had no effect on dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. These results indicate a partial role for TNF in the reversible depression-like phenotype observed under chronic dim LAN. Recent environmental changes, such as LAN exposure, may warrant more attention as possible contributors to rising rates of mood disorders.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 386
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Author Lyytimäki, J.
Title Nature's nocturnal services: Light pollution as a non-recognised challenge for ecosystem services research and management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ecosystem Services Abbreviated Journal Ecosystem Services
Volume 3 Issue Pages e44-e48
Keywords Economics; Ecosystem disservices; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Light pollution; Scotoecology; Shifting baselines
Abstract Research focusing on ecosystem services has tackled several of the major drivers of environmental degradation, but it suffers from a blind spot related to light pollution. Light pollution caused by artificial night-time lighting is a global environmental change affecting terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. The long-term effects of the disruption of the natural cycles of light and dark on ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services are largely unknown. Even though additional research is clearly needed, identifying, developing and implementing stringent management actions aimed at reducing inadequately installed, unnecessary or excessive lighting are well justified. This essay argues that management is hampered, because ecosystem services from nocturnal nature are increasingly underappreciated by the public due to shifting baseline syndrome, making most people accustomed to constantly illuminated and light-polluted night environments. Increased attention from scientists, managers and the public is needed in order to explicate the best options for preserving the benefits from natural darkness.
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ISSN 2212-0416 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 433
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Author Vullings, L.A.E.; Blok, C.A.; Wessels, C.G.A.M.; Bulens, J.D.
Title Dealing with the Uncertainty of Having Incomplete Sources of Geo-Information in Spatial Planning Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy Abbreviated Journal Appl. Spatial Analysis
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 25-45
Keywords Economics
Abstract The Dutch spatial planning legal act of 2008 was aimed at improving efficiency and effectiveness in the development, evaluation and monitoring of spatial planning policy (Ministry of VROM, 2006a). One of the main effects of this legal act was the widespread availability and use of digital spatial plans (Ministry of VROM 2006a, b). This reform led to the expectation that all digital spatial plans would be exchangeable and comparable. In practice, this exchange and comparison required carrying out complex procedures due to uncertainty caused by differences in the scope of spatial plans as well as their intended use. Furthermore the uncertainty resulted in a lack of confidence in spatial plans by policymakers and supporting GIS staff. Our overarching research question was: how can uncertainty caused by incomplete geo-information sources be dealt with? We proposed two techniques—fuzzy logic and visualisation—for policy makers to deal with uncertainty resulting from incomplete geo-information sources in spatial planning at the regional and national planning levels. We used two case studies in the Netherlands to illustrate the results of applying these techniques. The fuzzy set theory provides extra information by converting the discrete borders of continuous objects into fuzzy borders that improve the resemblance to the real object and thus make it more realistic. As shown in the second case study, visualisation also improves the degree of realism and thus provides additional information. Both case studies showed that providing additional information reduces the uncertainty felt by policymakers.
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ISSN 1874-463X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 436
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Author Edensor, T.
Title Reconnecting with darkness: gloomy landscapes, lightless places Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Social & Cultural Geography Abbreviated Journal Social & Cultural Geography
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 446-465
Keywords Culture; darkness; illumination; perception; sensation; landscape; space; obscurité; illumination; perception; sensation; paysage; espace; oscuridad; iluminación; percepción; sensación; paisaje; espacio
Abstract This paper investigates the effects and affects of darkness, a condition that is progressively becoming less familiar for those of us in the over-illuminated West. In countering the prevailing cultural understanding that darkness is a negative condition, I draw attention to other historical and cultural ways of positively valuing darkness. Subsequently, in drawing on two sites, a gloomy landscape at a dark sky park in South Scotland, and a tourist attraction in which a simulation of New York is experienced in a completely dark environment, I explore the multivalent qualities of darkness. In foregrounding the becoming of sensory experience in gloomy space, I highlight the mobilisation of alternative modes of visual perception in as well as the emergence of non-visual apprehensions, and suggest that the potentialities of darkness might foster progressive forms of conviviality, communication and imagination.

Cet article interroge les effets et les affects de l'obscurité, une condition qui devient de moins en moins courante pour ceux parmi nous dans l'occident sur-illuminé. Pour s'opposer à la compréhension culturelle dominante que l'obscurité est une condition négative, j'attire l'attention aux autres façons historiques et culturelles de faire valoir l'obscurité. Ensuite, en tirant de deux sites—l'un, un paysage sombre à un parc de ciel obscure dans l'Ecosse du Sud, et l'autre, une attraction touristique dans laquelleon a une expérience d'une simulation de New York dans un environnement complètement noirci—j'examine les qualités polyvalentes de l'obscurité. En mettant en premier plan l'émergence de l'expérience sensorielle dans l'espace sombre, je souligne la mobilisation des modes alternatives de la perception visuelle ainsi que l'émergence des appréhensions non-visuelles, et je suggère que les potentialités de l'obscurité puissent encourager des formes progressives de la convivialité, la communication, et l'imagination.

Este artículo explora los efectos y los afectos asociadosa la oscuridad, una condición que resulta cada vez menos familiar para aquellos de nosotros que vivimos en unOccidentehiperiluminado.A los fines de contrarrestar la perspectiva cultural predominante que le asigna a la oscuridad una valoración negativa, pretendo llamar la atención sobre otras formas históricas y culturales que le otorgan un valor positivo a la oscuridad. Luego exploro las cualidades polivalentesde la oscuridad mediante el estudio de dos sitios: el paisaje sombrío de un parque sin iluminación artificial en el sur de Escocia y una atracción turística en el que se simula la ciudad de Nueva York, experimentada en un ambiente completamente oscuro.A los fines de dar cuenta del desarrollo de experiencias sensoriales en espacios sombríos, destaco la movilización de modos alternativos de percepción visual así como también la emergencia de formas de aprehensión no visuales Además,sugiero que la oscuridad tiene el potencial para promoverformas de convivencia, comunicación e imaginación progresistas.
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ISSN 1464-9365 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 443
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Author Snyder, J.D.; Bullough, J.D.; Radetsky, L.C.
Title Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication National Technical Information Service report Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting Systems
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 444
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