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Author van der Burght, B.W.; Hansen, M.; Olsen, J.; Zhou, J.; Wu, Y.; Nissen, M.H.; Sparrow, J.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Early changes in gene expression induced by blue light irradiation of A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelial cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Acta Ophthalmologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Ophthalmol  
  Volume 91 Issue 7 Pages e537-45  
  Keywords Apoptosis; Cell Line; Cell Survival; Gene Expression Regulation/*physiology; Humans; Light; Lipofuscin/genetics; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Pyridinium Compounds; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/metabolism/pathology/*radiation effects; Retinoids/*genetics; Transcriptome; A2e; age-related macular degeneration; apoptosis; complement cascade; gene expression; retinal pigment epithelial cells; blue light; retinal pigment epithelial; epigenetics  
  Abstract PURPOSE: Accumulation of bisretinoids as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of some blinding diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To identify genes whose expression may change under conditions of bisretinoid accumulation, we investigated the differential gene expression in RPE cells that had accumulated the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E and were exposed to blue light (430 nm). METHODS: A2E-laden RPE cells were exposed to blue light (A2E/430 nm) at various time intervals. Cell death was quantified using Dead Red staining, and RNA levels for the entire genome was determined using DNA microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome 2.0 Plus). Array results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Principal component analysis revealed that the A2E-laden RPE cells irradiated with blue light were clearly distinguishable from the control samples. We found differential regulation of genes belonging to the following functional groups: transcription factors, stress response, apoptosis and immune response. Among the last mentioned were downregulation of four genes that coded for proteins that have an inhibitory effect on the complement cascade: (complement factor H, complement factor H-related 1, complement factor I and vitronectin) and of two belonging to the classical pathway (complement component 1, s subcomponent and complement component 1, r subcomponent). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that blue light irradiation of A2E-laden RPE cells can alter the transcription of genes belonging to different functional pathways including stress response, apoptosis and the immune response. We suggest that these molecules may be associated to the pathogenesis of AMD and can potentially serve as future therapeutic targets.  
  Address Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Eye Research Unit, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1755-375X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23742627 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 346  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kayaba, M.; Iwayama, K.; Ogata, H.; Seya, Y.; Tokuyama, K.; Satoh, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Drowsiness and low energy metabolism in the following morning induced by nocturnal blue light exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Medicine  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages e166-e167  
  Keywords blue light; light exposure; light at night; circadian disruption; drowsiness; melatonin; metabolism; sleep  
  Abstract Introduction

Evening light exposure debilitates the circadian rhythm and elicits sleep disturbance. Blue light peak wavelengths, around 460 nm, suppress melatonin secretion via the non-image-forming system. The effects of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep have been reported to be specific but rather small (Münch, 2008). This study was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep and energy metabolism until noon the next day.

Materials and methods

Nine healthy male volunteers aged between 21 and 25 participated in this study which had a balanced cross-over design with intrasubject comparisons. After 2 h dark adaptation, the subjects were exposed to blue light or no light for 2 h. The peak wavelength of the blue LED was 465 nm, and the horizontal irradiance of the blue light at the height of eye was at 7.02fÊW/cm2. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and energy metabolism was measured with a whole body indirect calorimeter.

Results

There were no significant differences in sleep architecture and energy metabolism during the night. However, dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly higher (26.0 < 29.4 vs 6.3 < 8.1 min, P < 0.05), and energy expenditure, O2 consumption, CO2 production and the thermic effect of food (increase in energy expenditure after breakfast) were significantly lower the following morning in the blue light exposure subjects.

Conclusion

Contrary to our expectation, sleep architecture and energy metabolism during sleep were not affected by evening exposure to blue light. It might be due to our milder intervention by which subjects in a sitting position did not gaze at the light source set on the ceiling, while the subjects in previous studies directly received brighter light via custom built goggles (Cajochen, 2005; Münch, 2008) or gazed at a light source under the influence of mydriatic agents to dilate pupils (Brainard, 2001). New findings of the present study were that dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly increased, and energy metabolism was significantly lower the following morning in blue light exposed subjects. This suggests that modulation of the circadian rhythm is affected by nocturnal blue light exposure and the effect continues in the following daytime even if the intervention was mild.
 
  Address University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 349  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, S.D.P.; McIntyre, P.B.; Halpern, B.S.; Cooke, R.M.; Marino, A.L.; Boyer, G.L.; Buchsbaum, A.; Burton, J., G. Allen; Campbell, L.M.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Doran, P.J.; Infante, D.M.; Johnson, L.B.; Read, J.G.; Rose, J.B.; Rutherford, E.S.; Steinman, A.D.; Allan, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications  
  Volume Issue Pages 140915094202006  
  Keywords Great Lakes; limnology; light pollution; environment; stressor; ecology  
  Abstract Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in relative impact can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors to have some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 372  
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Author Mace, B.L.; McDaniel, J. url  openurl
  Title Visitor Evaluation of Night Sky Interpretation in Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Interpretation Research Abbreviated Journal J. of Interp. Res.  
  Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 39-57  
  Keywords parks; interpretation; social studies; Bryce Canyon National Park; Cedar Breaks National Monument; dark skies  
  Abstract Natural lightscapes are an important resource for parks and protected areas, including Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument. Both locations offer night sky interpretive programs, attracting over 27,000 visitors annually, equaling all other interpretive programs combined. Parks need to understand what drives visitor interest and park managers need to assess if night sky interpretation is meeting expectations. A total of 1,179 night and day visitors to Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument served as participants and completed a 36-item survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, benefits, and behaviors related to the night sky. Results show those who attended a night sky interpretive program gained a significant amount of knowledge about night sky issues. Both day and night visitors have strongly held attitudes about light pollution and the protection of the night sky in national parks.  
  Address Department of Psychology, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT 84720 USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 374  
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Author Bolshakov, C.V.; Bulyuk, V.N.; Sinelschikova, A.Y.; Vorotkov, M.V. url  openurl
  Title Influence of the vertical light beam on numbers and flight trajectories of night-migrating songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Avian Ecol. Behav. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 24 Issue Pages 35–49  
  Keywords Animals; nocturnal migration; light pollution; numbers; flight track; extrinsic factors  
  Abstract In this paper we analyse the data obtained in the automatic regime by the Optical Electronic Device (OED, Vorotkov et al. 2009; Bolshakov et al. 2010) for autumn nocturnal passage of passerines on the Courish Spit on the Baltic Sea and estimate: (1) numbers aloft under differ- ent types of wind (following wind, opposing wind and calm conditions); (2) flight trajectories in the 5° cone of white light. We found that under natural nocturnal illumination conditions, the vertical cone of white light impacts the detectable numbers aloft and disturbs straight flight trajectories. The OED data obtained throughout the night suggest, after correction for ground speed and the mean flight altitude, the actual number of birds in the light cone peaks at calm conditions, is halved under following winds which are optimal for passage and is 21 times lower under unfavourable headwinds. It is assumed that high numbers in the light cone under calm conditions is an artefact of bird attraction by light and their concentration around the searchlights. The OED data obtained for midnight ±1 hour, flying migrants respond to the vertical light cone under all types of wind conditions by altering their straight flight trajec- tories. However, this response is most apparent in still air conditions. The proportion of birds that change their flight track reaches 43%. We assume that under such conditions some birds are not only attracted to the illuminated zone at low altitudes, but, besides slowing down their ground speed, change their trajectories to the degree of flying in circles. To determine combi- nations of factors and to test for their possible impact on the probability of response to light, we used a binary logistic regression. The presence of birds with straight vs. curved tracks was used as the dependent variable. Final logistic models obtained for midnight ±1 hour for calm conditions and headwinds, suggest that occurrence probability of songbirds with curvilinear flight tracks is higher for small birds, when no or just a small part of Moon disk is visible and under high air humidity. Under headwinds the probability of occurrence of birds flying curvi- linear tracks is also higher under overcast. For following winds, the probability of occurrence birds flying curvilinearly was higher when many small birds were aloft, when air humidity was high and when wind was not strictly following. Unlike other wind situations, this model did not include the size of visible part of the Moon disk as a significant factor. The increase of occurrence of curvilinear flight tracks through the light beam when winds were not exactly following was probably caused by the problems with compensating the lateral component of tailwinds under high velocities, especially by small birds.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 378  
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