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Author Meyer, L.A.; Sullivan, S.M.P.
Title (up) Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications
Volume 23 Issue 6 Pages 1322-1330
Keywords ecological light pollution; ecosystem function; stream–riparian invertebrate fluxes; tetragnathid spiders; urban streams
Abstract Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1–0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6–2.0 lux; high, 2.1–4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10–12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic–terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.
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ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 102
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Author Ciocca, M.; Wang, J.
Title (up) By the light of the silvery Moon: fact and fiction Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Physics Education Abbreviated Journal Phys. Educ.
Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 360-367
Keywords Vision; moonlight; Purkinje effect; Purkinje shift; mesopic
Abstract Is moonlight 'silver' or 'cold'? In this paper we discuss the interesting combination of factors that contribute to the common descriptions of moonlight. Sunlight is reflected from the lunar surface and red-shifted. When traversing the atmosphere, moonlight is further depleted of short wavelength content by Rayleigh scattering. We measured the spectra of the moonlight to show these effects and compared them with sunlight. All measurements, including spectral reflectance, suggest that moonlight is redder than sunlight. The silvery Moon is just an illusion due to the properties and behaviour of our own eyes, including the responses of rods and cones and the physiological perceptive phenomenon called Purkinje shift.
Address Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, USA E-mail: marco.ciocca(at)eku.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher IOP Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9120 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2227
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Author Mazor, T.; Levin, N.; Possingham, H.P.; Levy, Y.; Rocchini, D.; Richardson, A.J.; Kark, S.
Title (up) Can satellite-based night lights be used for conservation? The case of nesting sea turtles in the Mediterranean Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume 159 Issue Pages 63-72
Keywords Artificial night lights; Caretta caretta; Chelonia mydas; Coastal conservation; Satellite imagery; Sea turtle conservation
Abstract Artificial night lights pose a major threat to multiple species. However, this threat is often disregarded in conservation management and action because it is difficult to quantify its effect. Increasing availability of high spatial-resolution satellite images may enable us to better incorporate this threat into future work, particularly in highly modified ecosystems such as the coastal zone. In this study we examine the potential of satellite night light imagery to predict the distribution of the endangered loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtle nests in the eastern Mediterranean coastline. Using remote sensing tools and high resolution data derived from the SAC-C satellite and the International Space Station, we examined the relationship between the long term spatial patterns of sea turtle nests and the intensity of night lights along Israel’s entire Mediterranean coastline. We found that sea turtles nests are negatively related to night light intensity and are concentrated in darker sections along the coast. Our resulting GLMs showed that night lights were a significant factor for explaining the distribution of sea turtle nests. Other significant variables included: cliff presence, human population density and infrastructure. This study is one of the first to show that night lights estimated with satellite-based imagery can be used to help explain sea turtle nesting activity at a detailed resolution over large areas. This approach can facilitate the management of species affected by night lights, and will be particularly useful in areas that are inaccessible or where broad-scale prioritization of conservation action is required.
Address ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
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ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 213
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Author Jou, J.-H.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Tseng, J.-R.; Peng, S.-H.; Jou, Y.-C.; Hong, J.H.; Shen, S.-M.; Tang, M.-C.; Chen, P.-C.; Lin, C.-H.
Title (up) Candle Light-Style Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Advanced Functional Materials Abbreviated Journal Adv. Funct. Mater.
Volume 23 Issue 21 Pages 2750-2757
Keywords organic light emitting diodes; candle light; firelight; OLED; CRI; color rendition
Abstract In response to the call for a physiologically-friendly light at night that shows low color temperature, a candle light-style organic light emitting diode (OLED) is developed with a color temperature as low as 1900 K, a color rendering index (CRI) as high as 93, and an efficacy at least two times that of incandescent bulbs. In addition, the device has a 80% resemblance in luminance spectrum to that of a candle. Most importantly, the sensationally warm candle light-style emission is driven by electricity in lieu of the energy-wasting and greenhouse gas emitting hydrocarbon-burning candles invented 5000 years ago. This candle light-style OLED may serve as a safe measure for illumination at night. Moreover, it has a high color rendering index with a decent efficiency.
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ISSN 1616301X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 284
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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title (up) Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible role for TNF Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Molecular Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal
Volume 18 Issue Pages 930-936
Keywords Animals
Abstract The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades and women are twice as likely as men to develop the disorder. Recent environmental changes almost certainly have a role in this phenomenon, but a complete set of contributors remains unspecified. Exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) has surged in prevalence during the past 50 years, coinciding with rising rates of depression. Chronic exposure to LAN is linked to increased risk of breast cancer, obesity and mood disorders, although the relationship to mood is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to 5 lux LAN on depression-like behaviors in female hamsters. Using this model, we also characterized hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and hippocampal dendritic morphology, and investigated the reversibility of these changes 1, 2 or 4 weeks following elimination of LAN. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of action, focusing on hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines given their dual role in synaptic plasticity and the pathogenesis of depression. Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we identified a reversible increase in hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not interleukin-1β, mRNA expression in hamsters exposed to LAN. Direct intracerebroventricular infusion of a dominant-negative inhibitor of soluble TNF, XPro1595, prevented the development of depression-like behavior under LAN, but had no effect on dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. These results indicate a partial role for TNF in the reversible depression-like phenotype observed under chronic dim LAN. Recent environmental changes, such as LAN exposure, may warrant more attention as possible contributors to rising rates of mood disorders.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 386
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