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Author Picchi, M.S.; Avolio, L.; Azzani, L.; Brombin, O.; Camerini, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fireflies and land use in an urban landscape: the case of Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the city of Turin Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal J Insect Conserv  
  Volume (down) 17 Issue 4 Pages 797-805  
  Keywords Turin; insects; Coleoptera Lampyridae; Luciola italica; Urban environment; Fireflies; Light pollution; Ecological corridors; Green areas; Po River; Italy  
  Abstract Research was carried out in the city of Turin (Northern Italy) in order to assess the suitability of the urban environment for fireflies.The study started in 2007 with an artistic and scientific project promoted by Parco Arte Vivente (PAV—Park of living art). Citizens joining the project recorded 18 areas where they could observe fireflies, which were identified as Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera Lampyridae). All of the 18 areas recorded by citizens were then visited during the summer of 2009 and the abundance of L. italica was estimated using transects. In 12 sites the presence of the firefly was confirmed. The habitat structures of L. italica were woods interspersed with clearings in the urban districts in the hills, and parks along rivers in the lower and more populated part of the city. In sites where fireflies were observed, the level of illuminance measured was significantly lower than in areas where L. italica was absent. The analysis of the landscape around the study areas showed a negative correlation between the extent of urbanization and fireflies abundance. Survival of L. italica populations in the urban area of Turin is influenced by the extent of green areas and the level of artificial illumination. Parks lying among rivers preserve a level of darkness suitable for fireflies and are connected by woody strips growing along the banks of rivers, that probably function as ecological corridors.  
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  ISSN 1366-638X ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 108  
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Author Haus, E.L.; Smolensky, M.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Reviews Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med Rev  
  Volume (down) 17 Issue 4 Pages 273-284  
  Keywords Cell Cycle/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology; Humans; Light; Melatonin/physiology; Neoplasms/*etiology; Risk Factors; Sleep Deprivation/*complications; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology; oncogenesis  
  Abstract Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species.  
  Address Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, University of Minnesota and Health Partners Medical Group, Regions Hospital, 640 Jackson Street, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101, USA. Erhard.X.Haus@HealthPartners.com  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1087-0792 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23137527 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 157  
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Author Pottharst, M.; Könecke, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Night and Its Loss Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Springer Netherlands Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 15 Issue Pages 37-48  
  Keywords Economy  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is both a precondition and a consequence of the 24-hour society. It makes public spaces safer, allows a range of economic and social activities at night and influences the way goods production and services, buildings and entire cities are organised. Despite these achievements, from early on, critical voices have drawn attention to the negative impact of artificial lighting on humans, animals, cityscapes, landscapes and energy consumption. This has recently culminated in growing criticism of ‘light pollution’. This chapter investigates from a socioeconomic perspective the economic and social functions of artificial light, on the one hand, and the ‘loss of the night’, on the other, and outlines a preliminary taxonomy of relevant positive and negative effects of nocturnal artificial light. It is part of a joint research project on the ‘loss of the night’, which aims to develop new concepts of lighting to reduce light pollution.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 867  
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Author Cho, J.R.; Joo, E.Y.; Koo, D.L.; Hong, S.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Let there be no light: the effect of bedside light on sleep quality and background electroencephalographic rhythms Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume (down) 14 Issue 12 Pages 1422-1425  
  Keywords Eeg; Light; Polysomnography; Sleep; Sleep spindle; Slow oscillation  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: Artificial lighting has been beneficial to society, but unnecessary light exposure at night may cause various health problems. We aimed to investigate how whole-night bedside light can affect sleep quality and brain activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten healthy sleepers underwent two polysomnography (PSG) sessions, one with the lights off and one with the lights on. PSG variables related to sleep quality were extracted and compared between lights-off and lights-on sleep. Spectral analysis was performed to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep epochs to reveal any light-induced differences in background brain rhythms. RESULTS: Lights-on sleep was associated with increased stage 1 sleep (N1), decreased slow-wave sleep (SWS), and increased arousal index. Spectral analysis revealed that theta power (4-8Hz) during REM sleep and slow oscillation (0.5-1Hz), delta (1-4Hz), and spindle (10-16Hz) power during NREM sleep were decreased in lights-on sleep conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Sleeping with the light on not only causes shallow sleep and frequent arousals but also has a persistent effect on brain oscillations, especially those implicated in sleep depth and stability. Our study demonstrates additional hazardous effect of light pollution on health.  
  Address Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Division of Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA  
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  ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:24210607 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 141  
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Author Dukic, T.; Ahlstrom, C.; Patten, C.; Kettwich, C.; Kircher, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev  
  Volume (down) 14 Issue 5 Pages 469-476  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*methods; *Attention; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Eye Movements; Humans; Middle Aged; Psychomotor Performance; Sweden; Time Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is an increase in electronic advertising billboards along major roads, which may cause driver distraction due to the highly conspicuous design of the electronic billboards. Yet limited research on the impact of electronic billboards on driving performance and driver behavior is available. The Swedish Transport Administration recently approved the installation of 12 electronic billboards for a trial period along a 3-lane motorway with heavy traffic running through central Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these electronic billboards on visual behavior and driving performance. METHOD: A total of 41 drivers were recruited to drive an instrumented vehicle passing 4 of the electronic billboards during day and night conditions. A driver was considered visually distracted when looking at a billboard continuously for more than 2 s or if the driver looked away from the road for a high percentage of time. Dependent variables were eye-tracking measures and driving performance measures. RESULTS: The visual behavior data showed that drivers had a significantly longer dwell time, a greater number of fixations, and longer maximum fixation duration when driving past an electronic billboard compared to other signs on the same road stretches. No differences were found for the factors day/night, and no effect was found for the driving behavior data. CONCLUSION: Electronic billboards have an effect on gaze behavior by attracting more and longer glances than regular traffic signs. Whether the electronic billboards attract too much attention and constitute a traffic safety hazard cannot be answered conclusively based on the present data.  
  Address Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden. tania.dukic@vti.se  
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  ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23682577 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 247  
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Author Kayaba, M.; Iwayama, K.; Ogata, H.; Seya, Y.; Tokuyama, K.; Satoh, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Drowsiness and low energy metabolism in the following morning induced by nocturnal blue light exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Medicine  
  Volume (down) 14 Issue Pages e166-e167  
  Keywords blue light; light exposure; light at night; circadian disruption; drowsiness; melatonin; metabolism; sleep  
  Abstract Introduction

Evening light exposure debilitates the circadian rhythm and elicits sleep disturbance. Blue light peak wavelengths, around 460 nm, suppress melatonin secretion via the non-image-forming system. The effects of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep have been reported to be specific but rather small (Münch, 2008). This study was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep and energy metabolism until noon the next day.

Materials and methods

Nine healthy male volunteers aged between 21 and 25 participated in this study which had a balanced cross-over design with intrasubject comparisons. After 2 h dark adaptation, the subjects were exposed to blue light or no light for 2 h. The peak wavelength of the blue LED was 465 nm, and the horizontal irradiance of the blue light at the height of eye was at 7.02fÊW/cm2. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and energy metabolism was measured with a whole body indirect calorimeter.

Results

There were no significant differences in sleep architecture and energy metabolism during the night. However, dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly higher (26.0 < 29.4 vs 6.3 < 8.1 min, P < 0.05), and energy expenditure, O2 consumption, CO2 production and the thermic effect of food (increase in energy expenditure after breakfast) were significantly lower the following morning in the blue light exposure subjects.

Conclusion

Contrary to our expectation, sleep architecture and energy metabolism during sleep were not affected by evening exposure to blue light. It might be due to our milder intervention by which subjects in a sitting position did not gaze at the light source set on the ceiling, while the subjects in previous studies directly received brighter light via custom built goggles (Cajochen, 2005; Münch, 2008) or gazed at a light source under the influence of mydriatic agents to dilate pupils (Brainard, 2001). New findings of the present study were that dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly increased, and energy metabolism was significantly lower the following morning in blue light exposed subjects. This suggests that modulation of the circadian rhythm is affected by nocturnal blue light exposure and the effect continues in the following daytime even if the intervention was mild.
 
  Address University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Japan  
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  ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 349  
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Author Edensor, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reconnecting with darkness: gloomy landscapes, lightless places Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Social & Cultural Geography Abbreviated Journal Social & Cultural Geography  
  Volume (down) 14 Issue 4 Pages 446-465  
  Keywords Culture; darkness; illumination; perception; sensation; landscape; space; obscurité; illumination; perception; sensation; paysage; espace; oscuridad; iluminación; percepción; sensación; paisaje; espacio  
  Abstract This paper investigates the effects and affects of darkness, a condition that is progressively becoming less familiar for those of us in the over-illuminated West. In countering the prevailing cultural understanding that darkness is a negative condition, I draw attention to other historical and cultural ways of positively valuing darkness. Subsequently, in drawing on two sites, a gloomy landscape at a dark sky park in South Scotland, and a tourist attraction in which a simulation of New York is experienced in a completely dark environment, I explore the multivalent qualities of darkness. In foregrounding the becoming of sensory experience in gloomy space, I highlight the mobilisation of alternative modes of visual perception in as well as the emergence of non-visual apprehensions, and suggest that the potentialities of darkness might foster progressive forms of conviviality, communication and imagination.

Cet article interroge les effets et les affects de l'obscurité, une condition qui devient de moins en moins courante pour ceux parmi nous dans l'occident sur-illuminé. Pour s'opposer à la compréhension culturelle dominante que l'obscurité est une condition négative, j'attire l'attention aux autres façons historiques et culturelles de faire valoir l'obscurité. Ensuite, en tirant de deux sites—l'un, un paysage sombre à un parc de ciel obscure dans l'Ecosse du Sud, et l'autre, une attraction touristique dans laquelleon a une expérience d'une simulation de New York dans un environnement complètement noirci—j'examine les qualités polyvalentes de l'obscurité. En mettant en premier plan l'émergence de l'expérience sensorielle dans l'espace sombre, je souligne la mobilisation des modes alternatives de la perception visuelle ainsi que l'émergence des appréhensions non-visuelles, et je suggère que les potentialités de l'obscurité puissent encourager des formes progressives de la convivialité, la communication, et l'imagination.

Este artículo explora los efectos y los afectos asociadosa la oscuridad, una condición que resulta cada vez menos familiar para aquellos de nosotros que vivimos en unOccidentehiperiluminado.A los fines de contrarrestar la perspectiva cultural predominante que le asigna a la oscuridad una valoración negativa, pretendo llamar la atención sobre otras formas históricas y culturales que le otorgan un valor positivo a la oscuridad. Luego exploro las cualidades polivalentesde la oscuridad mediante el estudio de dos sitios: el paisaje sombrío de un parque sin iluminación artificial en el sur de Escocia y una atracción turística en el que se simula la ciudad de Nueva York, experimentada en un ambiente completamente oscuro.A los fines de dar cuenta del desarrollo de experiencias sensoriales en espacios sombríos, destaco la movilización de modos alternativos de percepción visual así como también la emergencia de formas de aprehensión no visuales Además,sugiero que la oscuridad tiene el potencial para promoverformas de convivencia, comunicación e imaginación progresistas.
 
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  ISSN 1464-9365 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 443  
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Author Kim, J.; Hwang, K.; Cho, J.; Koo, D.; Joo, E.; Hong, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of bedside light on sleep quality and background eeg rhythms Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Medicine  
  Volume (down) 14 Issue Pages e170  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Artificial lighting has benefited society by extending the length of a productive day, but it can be ”light pollution” when it becomes excessive. Unnecessary exposure to artificial light at night can cause myopia, obesity, metabolic disorders and even some type of cancers.  
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  ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 502  
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Author Vignoli, L.; Luiselli, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Better in the dark: two Mediterranean amphibians synchronize reproduction with moonlit nights Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Web Ecology Abbreviated Journal Web Ecol.  
  Volume (down) 13 Issue 1 Pages 1-11  
  Keywords animals; amphibians; Hyla intermedia; Rana dalmatina; *Reproduction; reproductive strategies; Moon; moon phase; moonlight  
  Abstract In Amphibians, both positive and negative correlations between activity and full moon phase have been observed. In this study, we present data for two anuran species (Hyla intermedia and Rana dalmatina) studied in a hilly Mediterranean area of central Italy. We analysed, in a two-year survey, the relationships between the number of egg clutches laid each night and the moon phases by means of circular statistics. Moreover, the studied species exhibited clear oviposition site selection behaviour influenced, at least in H. intermedia, by moon phases. We observed the occurrence of an avoidance effect by amphibians for oviposition and specific egg-laying behaviour during moon phases around the full moon. This apparent lunar phobia was evident in both species when yearly data were pooled. On the other hand, while this pattern continued to be also evident in H. intermedia when single years were considered, in R. dalmatina it stood just in one year of study. Nonetheless, during cloudy nights, when moonlight arriving on the ground was low, the frogs' behaviour was similar to that observed in new moon phases. We interpreted the observed pattern as an anti-predatory strategy. Overall, comparisons between our own study and previous research suggest that there was insufficient evidence to establish any unequivocal patterns and that further research in this regard is needed.  
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  ISSN 1399-1183 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 80  
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Author Schnitt, S.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Temperature stability of the sky quality meter Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)  
  Volume (down) 13 Issue 9 Pages 12166-12174  
  Keywords *Artifacts; Atmosphere/*analysis; Environmental Monitoring/*instrumentation; Equipment Design; Equipment Failure Analysis; Photometry/*instrumentation; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity; Temperature; *Transducers; Sky Quality Meter; SQM  
  Abstract The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM)was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable light field in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated with temperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperature range of -15 degrees C to 35 degrees C, and during temperature changes of -33 degrees C/h and +70 degrees C/h.This is smaller than the manufacturer's quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%,indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions.  
  Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10, Berlin 12165, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24030682; PMCID:PMC3821345 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 194  
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