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Author Nickla, D.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ocular diurnal rhythms and eye growth regulation: where we are 50 years after Lauber Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Experimental eye Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Eye Res  
  Volume (down) 114 Issue Pages 25-34  
  Keywords Vision; Human Health; Review  
  Abstract Many ocular processes show diurnal oscillations that optimize retinal function under the different conditions of ambient illumination encountered over the course of the 24 h light/dark cycle. Abolishing the diurnal cues by the use of constant darkness or constant light results in excessive ocular elongation, corneal flattening, and attendant refractive errors. A prevailing hypothesis is that the absence of the Zeitgeber of light and dark alters ocular circadian rhythms in some manner, and results in an inability of the eye to regulate its growth in order to achieve emmetropia, the matching of the front optics to eye length. Another visual manipulation that results in the eye growth system going into a “default” mode of excessive growth is form deprivation, in which a translucent diffuser deprives the eye of visual transients (spatial or temporal) while not significantly reducing light levels; these eyes rapidly elongate and become myopic. It has been hypothesized that form deprivation might constitute a type of “constant condition” whereby the absence of visual transients drives the eye into a similar default mode as that in response to constant light or dark. Interest in the potential influence of light cycles and ambient lighting in human myopia development has been spurred by a recent study showing a positive association between the amount of time that children spent outdoors and a reduced prevalence of myopia. The growing eyes of chickens and monkeys show a diurnal rhythm in axial length: Eyes elongate more during the day than during the night. There is also a rhythm in choroidal thickness that is in approximate anti-phase to the rhythm in eye length. The phases are altered in eyes growing too fast, in response to form deprivation or negative lenses, or too slowly, in response to myopic defocus, suggesting an influence of phase on the emmetropization system. Other potential rhythmic influences include dopamine and melatonin, which form a reciprocal feedback loop, and signal “day” and “night” respectively. Retinal dopamine is reduced during the day in form deprived myopic eyes, and dopamine D2 agonists inhibit ocular growth in animal models. Rhythms in intraocular pressure as well, may influence eye growth, perhaps as a mechanical stimulus triggering changes in scleral extracellular matrix synthesis. Finally, evidence shows varying influences of environmental lighting parameters on the emmetropization system, such as high intensity light being protective against myopia in chickens. This review will cover the evidence for the possible influence of these various factors on ocular growth. The recognition that ocular rhythms may play a role in emmetropization is a first step toward understanding how they may be manipulated in treatment therapies to prevent myopia in humans.  
  Address New England College of Optometry, Department of Biosciences, 424 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. nicklad@neco.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4835 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23298452; PMCID:PMC3742730 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1987  
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Author Fritschi, L.; Erren, T.C.; Glass, D.C.; Girschik, J.; Thomson, A.K.; Saunders, C.; Boyle, T.; El-Zaemey, S.; Rogers, P.; Peters, S.; Slevin, T.; D'Orsogna, A.; de Vocht, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Heyworth, J.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The association between different night shiftwork factors and breast cancer: a case-control study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer  
  Volume (down) 109 Issue 9 Pages 2472-2480  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Case-Control Studies; Female; Humans; Life Style; Middle Aged; Questionnaires; Risk; Risk Factors; Western Australia/epidemiology; *Work Schedule Tolerance; Young Adult; oncogenesis  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Research on the possible association between shiftwork and breast cancer is complicated because there are many different shiftwork factors, which might be involved including: light at night, phase shift, sleep disruption and changes in lifestyle factors while on shiftwork (diet, physical activity, alcohol intake and low sun exposure). METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011 with 1205 incident breast cancer cases and 1789 frequency age-matched controls. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors and lifetime occupational history and a telephone interview was used to obtain further details about the shiftwork factors listed above. RESULTS: A small increase in risk was suggested for those ever doing the graveyard shift (work between midnight and 0500 hours) and breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.97-1.39). For phase shift, we found a 22% increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.01-1.47) with a statistically significant dose-response relationship (P=0.04). For the other shiftwork factors, risks were marginally elevated and not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We found some evidence that some of the factors involved in shiftwork may be associated with breast cancer but the ORs were low and there were inconsistencies in duration and dose-response relationships.  
  Address Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24022188; PMCID:PMC3817316 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 153  
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Author Obayashi, K.; Saeki, K.; Iwamoto, J.; Okamoto, N.; Tomioka, K.; Nezu, S.; Ikada, Y.; Kurumatani, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to light at night, nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion, and obesity/dyslipidemia in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Abbreviated Journal J Clin Endocrinol Metab  
  Volume (down) 98 Issue 1 Pages 337-344  
  Keywords *Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Case-Control Studies; *Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dyslipidemias/complications/metabolism/*urine; Female; Humans; Japan; *Light; Male; Melatonin/secretion/*urine; Obesity/complications/metabolism/*urine; Photoperiod  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Obesity and exposure to light at night (LAN) have increased globally. Although LAN suppresses melatonin secretion and disturbs body mass regulation in experimental settings, its associations with melatonin secretion, obesity, and other metabolic consequences in uncontrolled home settings remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association of exposure to LAN in an uncontrolled home setting with melatonin secretion, obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 528 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.8 yr). MEASURES: The intensity of LAN in the bedroom was measured at 1-min intervals during two consecutive nights, along with overnight urinary melatonin excretion and metabolic parameters. RESULTS: Compared with the Dim group (average <3 lux; n = 383), the LAN group (average >/=3 lux; n = 145) showed significantly higher body weight (adjusted mean, 58.8 vs. 56.6 kg; P = 0.01), body mass index (23.3 vs. 22.7 kg/m(2); P = 0.04), waist circumference (84.9 vs. 82.8 cm; P = 0.01), triglyceride levels (119.7 vs. 99.5 mg/dl; P < 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (128.6 vs. 122.2 mg/dl; P = 0.04), and showed significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (57.4 vs. 61.3 mg/dl; P = 0.02). These associations were independent of numerous potential confounders, including urinary melatonin excretion. Furthermore, LAN exposure is associated with higher odds ratios (ORs) for obesity (body mass index: OR, 1.89; P = 0.02; abdominal: OR, 1.62; P = 0.04) and dyslipidemia (OR, 1.72; P = 0.02) independent of demographic and socioeconomic parameters. In contrast, urinary melatonin excretion and glucose parameters did not show significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to LAN in an uncontrolled home setting is associated with impaired obese and lipid parameters independent of nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion in elderly individuals. Moreover, LAN exposure is associated with higher ORs for obesity and dyslipidemia independent of demographic and socioeconomic parameters.  
  Address Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijocho, Kashiharashi, Nara, 634-8521, Japan. obayashi@naramed-u.ac.jp  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-972X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23118419 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 168  
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Author Solbrig, J.E.; Lee, T.E.; Miller, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Advances in Remote Sensing: Imaging the Earth by Moonlight Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union Abbreviated Journal Eos Trans. AGU  
  Volume (down) 94 Issue 40 Pages 349-350  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; night; visible; VIIRS  
  Abstract Earth's nighttime environment is being revealed in unprecedented detail by the new satellite-mounted Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). VIIRS' Day/Night Band (DNB) is a highly sensitive broadband visible channel capable of detecting light from cities and other terrestrial emission sources.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0096-3941 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 486  
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Author Upham, N.S.; Hafner, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do nocturnal rodents in the Great Basin Desert avoid moonlight? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal Journal of Mammalogy  
  Volume (down) 94 Issue 1 Pages 59-72  
  Keywords Animals; Moonlight  
  Abstract Rodents make foraging decisions by balancing demands to acquire energy and mates with the need to avoid predators. To identify variations in the risk of predation, nocturnal rodents may use moonlight as a cue of risk. Moonlight avoidance behaviors have been observed in many nocturnal rodent species and are widely generalized to small mammals. However, most prior studies have been limited to 1 species or 1 study site, or occurred in modified habitats. We evaluated desert rodent activity patterns in natural habitats from 1999 to 2006 at 62 study sites across the Great Basin Desert of western North America. Rodent activity was examined by livetrapping in open habitats, using the presence of the sand-obligate kangaroo mouse (Microdipodops) as a habitat indicator. Activity patterns were assessed on 69 nights with clear skies and compared to corresponding moonlight values (moon phase and brightness) to evaluate the frequency of moonlight avoidance. Analyses of total activity of all species in the rodent assemblage relative to moonlight showed a distinct nonrandom (triangular-shaped) pattern but no significant correlations. However, individual genera of desert rodents responded differently to moonlight. Only kangaroo rats (Dipodomys) displayed significant moonlight avoidance patterns; they were maximally active at significantly different moonlight levels and avoided bright moonlight to a greater extent than co-occurring rodents. Moonlight seemed to limit the activity of kangaroo rats most strongly on bright nights during waxing moon phases and summer seasons, but not significantly during the spring or fall seasons, or during waning moons. Rather than avoiding moonlight, the activity of deer mice (Peromyscus), pocket mice (Perognathus), and kangaroo mice may be governed by changes in competition with kangaroo rats. Differences in the body size, locomotion, and space use of kangaroo rats relative to other rodents may explain why different moonlight responses were detected, especially if these traits alter how rodents perceive risk from bright moonlight. These findings indicate that moonlight avoidance may be a specialized trait of kangaroo rats rather than a general behavior of nocturnal desert rodents in the Great Basin.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-2372 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1555  
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