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Author Gallaway, T.; Olsen, R.N.; Mitchell, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blinded by the Light: Economic Analysis of Severe Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Economic Insight Abbreviated Journal J Econ Insight  
  Volume (down) 39 Issue 1 Pages 45-63  
  Keywords Economics; light pollution  
  Abstract This paper examines severe light pollution such as commonly found in large urban areas. Light pollution is the unintended negative consequences of poorly designed and injudiciously used artificial lighting. Light pollution generates significant costs including wasted energy and damage to human health, wildlife, recreation, and the beauty of the night sky. Typically, light-pollution models emphasize population density and ignore economic factors. Economic analysis of the issue has been singularly limited. Previous economic research has focused on widespread, but very low levels of light pollution. This paper makes a unique contribution by analyzing economic factors of severe light pollution. The paper utilizes economic data from the World Bank and unique remote sensing data for 184 countries to quantify the economic causes of severe light pollution. Fractional logit models confirm the importance of population and economic factors alike.  
  Address Department of Economics, Missouri State University; TerrelGallaway(at)missouristate.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Missouri Valley Economic Association Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0361-6576 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2338  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Franke, S.; Brüning, A.; Hölker, F.; Kloas, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Study of biological action of light on fish Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Light & Visual Environment Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 37 Issue 4 Pages  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 698  
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Author Shapira, I.; Walker, E.; Brunton, D.H.; Raubenheimer, D. url  openurl
  Title Responses to direct versus indirect cues of predation and competition in naϊve invasive mice: implications for management Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication New Zealand Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal NZ J. of Ecol.  
  Volume (down) 37 Issue 1 Pages 33-40  
  Keywords Animals; Mus musculus; mice; New Zealand; foraging; moonlight; giving-up density; GUD; moon phase  
  Abstract Many populations of invasive mice Mus musculus in New Zealand have experienced the removal of mammalian predators and competitors, with the consequence of mouse population irruptions. The effects of these removals on mouse foraging are largely unknown, yet this information is essential for developing and implementing better mouse control. We investigated the effects of direct and indirect predatory cues on foraging of free-ranging mice at a site where mammalian predators were eradicated 5 years previously. We used 17 stations, each containing four trays of millet seeds mixed thoroughly in sand, with three unfamiliar mammalian (a predator, a competitor, and a herbivore) odour treatments and a control (water), during the four phases of the moon. We measured mouse selectivity for treatment/control trays, giving-up densities (GUDs, a measure of food consumption), and tray encounter rates. Foraging by mice was not affected by odour cues from any of the unfamiliar mammals. Moonlight intensity, however, affected mouse foraging, with higher GUDs being recorded on brighter moon phases (full and waxing > new and waning) during the first night of the trials. This effect was less pronounced during the second night. Resource encounter rates were also affected, with the proportion of trays foraged lower during the brighter phases of the moon on both the first and second nights. We suggest that coordinating management efforts according to the phases of the moon has the potential to improve mouse control and reduce bait wastage.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 01106465 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1364  
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Author Chang, A.-M.; Scheer, F.A.J.L.; Czeisler, C.A.; Aeschbach, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Direct effects of light on alertness, vigilance, and the waking electroencephalogram in humans depend on prior light history Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Abbreviated Journal Sleep  
  Volume (down) 36 Issue 8 Pages 1239-1246  
  Keywords Arousal/*radiation effects; Attention/radiation effects; Cross-Over Studies; *Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/blood/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/radiation effects; Reaction Time; Wakefulness/*radiation effects; Young Adult; Light history; alertness and performance; light exposure  
  Abstract STUDY OBJECTIVES: Light can induce an acute alerting response in humans; however, it is unknown whether the magnitude of this response is simply a function of the absolute illuminance of the light itself, or whether it depends on illuminance history preceding the stimulus. Here, we compared the effects of illuminance history on the alerting response to a subsequent light stimulus. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover design was used to compare the effect of two illuminance histories (1 lux vs. 90 lux) on the alerting response to a 6.5-h 90-lux light stimulus during the biological night. SETTING: Intensive Physiologic Monitoring Unit, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy young adults (6 F; 23.5 +/- 2.9 years). INTERVENTIONS: Participants were administered two 6.5-h light exposures (LE) of 90 lux during the biological night. For 3 days prior to each LE, participants were exposed to either 1 lux or 90 lux during the wake episode. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The alerting response to light was assessed using subjective sleepiness ratings, lapses of attention, and reaction times as measured with an auditory psychomotor vigilance task, as well as power density in the delta/theta range of the waking EEG. The alerting response to light was greater and lasted longer when the LE followed exposure to 1 lux compared to 90 lux light. CONCLUSION: The magnitude and duration of the alerting effect of light at night depends on the illuminance history and appears to be subject to sensitization and adaptation.  
  Address Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. amchang@rics.bwh.harvard.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0161-8105 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23904684; PMCID:PMC3700721 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 145  
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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research  
  Volume (down) 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145  
  Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety  
  Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
 
  Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638  
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