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Author Hanifin, J.P.; Lockley, S.W.; Cecil, K.; West, K.; Jablonski, M.; Warfield, B.; James, M.; Ayers, M.; Byrne, B.; Gerner, E.; Pineda, C.; Rollag, M.; Brainard, G.C.
Title Randomized trial of polychromatic blue-enriched light for circadian phase shifting, melatonin suppression, and alerting responses Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal (down) Physiol Behav
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Wavelength comparisons have indicated that circadian phase-shifting and enhancement of subjective and EEG-correlates of alertness have a higher sensitivity to short wavelength visible light. The aim of the current study was to test whether polychromatic light enriched in the blue portion of the spectrum (17,000K) has increased efficacy for melatonin suppression, circadian phase-shifting, and alertness as compared to an equal photon density exposure to a standard white polychromatic light (4000K). Twenty healthy participants were studied in a time-free environment for 7days. The protocol included two baseline days followed by a 26-h constant routine (CR1) to assess initial circadian phase. Following CR1, participants were exposed to a full-field fluorescent light (1x10(14) photons/cm(2)/s, 4000K or 17,000K, n=10/condition) for 6.5h during the biological night. Following an 8h recovery sleep, a second 30-h CR was performed. Melatonin suppression was assessed from the difference during the light exposure and the corresponding clock time 24h earlier during CR1. Phase-shifts were calculated from the clock time difference in dim light melatonin onset time (DLMO) between CR1 and CR2. Blue-enriched light caused significantly greater suppression of melatonin than standard light ((mean+/-SD) 70.9+/-19.6% and 42.8+/-29.1%, respectively, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the magnitude of phase delay shifts. Blue-enriched light significantly improved subjective alertness (p<0.05) but no differences were found for objective alertness. These data contribute to the optimization of the short wavelength-enriched spectra and intensities needed for circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation.
Address Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30296404 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2025
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Author Studer, P.; Brucker, J.M.; Haag, C.; Van Doren, J.; Moll, G.H.; Heinrich, H.; Kratz, O.
Title Effects of blue- and red-enriched light on attention and sleep in typically developing adolescents Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal (down) Physiol Behav
Volume 199 Issue Pages 11-19
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Differential effects of blue- and red-enriched light on attention and sleep have been primarily described in adults. In our cross-over study in typically developing adolescents (11-17years old), we found attention enhancing effects of blue- compared to red-enriched light in the morning (high intensity of ca. 1000lx, short duration: <1h) in two of three attention tasks: e.g. better performance in math tests and reduced reaction time variability in a computerized attention test. In our pilot study, actigraphy measures of sleep indicated slight benefits for red- compared to blue-enriched light in the evening: tendencies toward a lower number of phases with movement activity after sleep onset in the complete sample and shorter sleep onset latency in a subgroup with later evening exposure times. These findings point to the relevance of light concepts regarding attention and sleep in typically developing adolescents. Such concepts should be developed and tested further in attention demanding contexts (at school) and for therapeutic purposes in adolescents with impaired attention or impaired circadian rhythms.
Address Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address: oliver.kratz@uk-erlangen.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30381244 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2142
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Author Kumar, P.; Sajjad, H.; Joshi, P.K.; Elvidge, C.D.; Rehman, S.; Chaudhary, B.S.; Tripathy, B.R.; Singh, J.; Pipal, G.
Title Modeling the luminous intensity of Beijing, China using DMSP-OLS night-time lights series data for estimating population density Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Abbreviated Journal (down) Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C
Volume 109 Issue Pages 31-39
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Various scientific researches were conducted to monitor human activities and natural phenomena with the availability of various night time satellite data such as Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMPS). Population growth especially in a faster growing economy like China is an important indicator for assessing socio-economic development, urban planning and environmental management. Thus, spatial distribution of population is instrumental in assessing growth and developmental activities in Beijing city of China. The satellite observation data derived from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) was utilized to estimate population density through the measurement of light flux with radiometric recording. The data was calibrated using C0, C1, C2 parameters before processing. Population density of Beijing city was estimated using light volume of this calibrated data. Regression analysis between urban population and light volume revealed high correlation (r2=0.89)r2=0.89). Thus, population density can effectively be estimated using light intensity. The model used for estimating urban population density can effectively be utilized for other major cities of the world.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1474-7065 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1934
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Author Manfrin, A.; Lehmann, D.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Larsen, S.; Syväranta, J.; Wharton, G.; Voigt, C.C.; Monaghan, M.T.; Hölker, F.
Title Dietary changes in predators and scavengers in a nocturnally illuminated riparian ecosystem Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Oikos Abbreviated Journal (down) Oikos
Volume 127 Issue 7 Pages 960-969
Keywords Ecology; Animals
Abstract Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked by fluxes of carbon and nutrients in riparian areas. Processes that alter these fluxes may therefore change the diet and composition of consumer communities. We used stable carbon isotope (&#948;13C) analyses to test whether the increased abundance of aquatic prey observed in a previous study led to a dietary shift in riparian consumers in areas illuminated by artificial light at night (ALAN). We measured the contribution of aquatic-derived carbon to diets in riparian arthropods in experimentally lit and unlit sites along an agricultural drainage ditch in northern Germany. The &#948;13C signature of the spider Pachygnatha clercki (Tetragnathidae) was 0.7‰ lower in the ALAN-illuminated site in summer, indicating a greater assimilation of aquatic prey. Bayesian mixing models also supported higher intake of aquatic prey under ALAN in summer (34% versus 21%). In contrast, isotopic signatures for P. clercki (0.3‰) and Pardosa prativaga (0.7‰) indicated a preference for terrestrial prey in the illuminated site in summer. Terrestrial prey intake increased in spring for P. clercki under ALAN (from 70% to 74%) and in spring and autumn for P. prativaga (from 68% to 77% and from 67% to 72%) and Opiliones (from 68% to 72%; 68% to 75%). This was despite most of the available prey (up to 80%) being aquatic in origin. We conclude that ALAN changed the diet of riparian secondary consumers by increasing the density of both aquatic and terrestrial prey. Dietary changes were species- and season-specific, indicating that the effects of ALAN may interact with phenology and feeding strategy. Because streetlights can occur in high density near freshwaters, ALAN may have widespread effects on aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem linkages.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0030-1299 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1811
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Author Cravens, Z.M.; Boyles, J.G.
Title Illuminating the physiological implications of artificial light on an insectivorous bat community Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal (down) Oecologia
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Global light pollution threatens to disturb numerous wildlife species, but impacts of artificial light will likely vary among species within a community. Thus, artificial lights may change the environment in such a way as to create winners and losers as some species benefit while others do not. Insectivorous bats are nocturnal and a good model to test for differential effects of light pollution on a single community. We used a physiological technique to address this community-level question by measuring plasma ss-hydroxybutyrate (a blood metabolite) concentrations from six species of insectivorous bats in lit and unlit conditions. We also recorded bat calls acoustically to measure activity levels between experimental conditions. Blood metabolite level and acoustic activity data suggest species-specific changes in foraging around lights. In red bats (Lasiurus borealis), ss-hydroxybutyrate levels at lit sites were highest early in the night before decreasing. Acoustic data indicate pronounced peaks in activity at lit sites early in the night. In red bats on dark nights and in the other species in this community, which seem to avoid lights, ss-hydroxybutyrate remained relatively constant. Our results suggest red bats are more willing to expend energy to actively forage around lights despite potential negative impacts, while other, generally rarer species avoid lit areas. Artificial light appears to have a bifurcating effect on bat communities, whereby some species take advantage of concentrated prey resources, yet most do not. Further, this may concentrate light-intolerant species into limited dark refugia, thereby increasing competition for depauperate, phototactic insect communities.
Address Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30446844 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2061
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