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Author Stone, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Value of Darkness: A Moral Framework for Urban Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Eng Ethics  
  Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages 607-628  
  Keywords Darkness; Society  
  Abstract The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics. A design for values orientation is utilized to conceptualize, define, and categorize the ways in which value is derived from darkness. Nine values are identified and categorized via their type of good, temporal outlook, and spatial characteristics. Furthermore, these nine values are translated into prima facie moral obligations that should be incorporated into future design choices, policy-making, and innovations to nighttime lighting. Thus, the value of darkness is analyzed with the practical goal of informing future decision-making about urban nighttime lighting.  
  Address Ethics and Philosophy of Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX, Delft, The Netherlands. t.w.stone@tudelft.nl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28597220; PMCID:PMC5876417 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2225  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Data  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 180256  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.  
  Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ludvigsen, M.; Berge, J.; Geoffroy, M.; Cohen, J.H.; De La Torre, P.R.; Nornes, S.M.; Singh, H.; Sorensen, A.J.; Daase, M.; Johnsen, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Adv  
  Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages eaap9887  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape response in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the zooplankton community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity.  
  Address Centre for Autonomous Operations and Systems, Department of Biology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29326985; PMCID:PMC5762190 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1806  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mard, J.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Mazzoleni, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime light data reveal how flood protection shapes human proximity to rivers Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Adv  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages eaar5779  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract To understand the spatiotemporal changes of flood risk, we need to determine the way in which humans adapt and respond to flood events. One adaptation option consists of resettling away from flood-prone areas to prevent or reduce future losses. We use satellite nighttime light data to discern the relationship between long-term changes in human proximity to rivers and the occurrence of catastrophic flood events. Moreover, we explore how these relationships are influenced by different levels of structural flood protection. We found that societies with low protection levels tend to resettle further away from the river after damaging flood events. Conversely, societies with high protection levels show no significant changes in human proximity to rivers. Instead, such societies continue to rely heavily on structural measures, reinforcing flood protection and quickly resettling in flood-prone areas after a flooding event. Our work reveals interesting aspects of human adaptation to flood risk and offers key insights for comparing different risk reduction strategies. In addition, this study provides a framework that can be used to further investigate human response to floods, which is relevant as urbanization of floodplains continues and puts more people and economic assets at risk.  
  Address IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30140738; PMCID:PMC6105301 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1989  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hall, A.L.; Davies, H.W.; Koehoorn, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Personal light-at-night exposures and components of variability in two common shift work industries: uses and implications for future research Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Abbreviated Journal (down) Scand J Work Environ Health  
  Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 80-87  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Objectives Shift workers' increased risk of various adverse health outcomes has been linked to light-at-night (LAN) exposure, but few studies have measured LAN exposure in workplaces. To inform future research methods, this study aimed to (i) measure shift workers' exposures to LAN across industries, occupations, and work environments and (ii) assess components of variance across different exposure groupings and metrics. Methods Between October 2015 and March 2016, 152 personal full-shift measurements were collected from 102 night shift workers in emergency health services (paramedics, dispatchers) and healthcare industries (nurses, care aides, security guards, unit clerks, and laboratory, pharmacy, and respiratory therapy staff) in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Descriptive and variance component analyses were conducted for the 23:00-05:00 period to characterize exposures using multiple metrics of potential biological relevance (median lux, 90 thpercentile lux, sum of minutes >/=30 lux, and sum of minutes >/=100 lux). Results Average exposure levels were highest in the healthcare industry. By occupation, laboratory workers and care aides displayed the highest and emergency dispatch officers displayed the lowest levels for all LAN exposure metrics. Between-group variance was large relative to within-group variance for all exposure groupings and metrics, and increased as grouping specificity increased (moving from industry to occupation). Conclusions Results from this study suggest that high-level grouping schemes may provide a simple yet effective way of characterizing individual LAN exposures in epidemiological studies of shift work. Ongoing measurement of LAN exposures and assessment of exposure variability is needed in future studies of shift workers as a means to increase sampling efficiency, reduce measurement error, and maximize researchers' ability to detect relationships where they exist.  
  Address School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, V6T1Z3, Canada. amyhall@mail.ubc.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0355-3140 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28951937 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1754  
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