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Author Sun, Shaojie; Lu, Yingcheng; Liu, Yongxue; Wang, Mengqiu; Hu, Chuanmin
Title Tracking an oil tanker collision and spilled oils in the East China Sea using multi‐sensor day and night satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Geophysical Research Letters Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 45 Issue 7 Pages 3212-3220
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Satellite remote sensing is well known to play a critical role in monitoring marine accidents such as oil spills, yet the recent SANCHI oil tanker collision event in January 2018 in the East China Sea indicates that traditional techniques using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or daytime optical imagery could not provide timely and adequate coverage. In this study, we show the unprecedented value of VIIRS Nightfire product and Day/Night Band (DNB) data in tracking the oil tanker's drifting pathway and locations when all other means are not as effective for the same purpose. Such pathway and locations can also be reproduced with a numerical model, with RMS error of < 15 km. While high‐resolution optical imagery after 4 days of the tanker's sinking reveals much larger oil spill area (> 350 km2) than previous reports, the impact of the spilled condensate oil on the marine environment requires further research.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1838
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A.
Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review
Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841
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Author Brelsford, CC; Robson, TM
Title Blue light advances bud burst in branches of three deciduous tree species under short-day conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Trees Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 1157-1164
Keywords Plants
Abstract During spring, utilising multiple cues allow tree species from temperate and boreal regions to coordinate their bud burst and leaf out, at the right moment to capitalise on favourable conditions for photosynthesis. Whilst the effect of blue light (400–500 nm) has been shown to increase percentage bud burst of axillary shoots of Rosa sp., the effects of blue light on spring-time bud burst of deciduous tree species have not previously been reported. We tested the hypotheses that blue light would advance spring bud burst in tree species, and that late-successional species would respond more than early-successional species, whose bud burst is primarily determined by temperature. The bud development of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, and Quercus robur branches, cut from dormant trees, was monitored under two light treatments of equal photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and temperature, either with or without blue light, under controlled environmental conditions. In the presence of blue light, the mean time required to reach 50% bud burst was reduced by 3.3 days in Betula pendula, 6 days in Alnus glutinosa, and 6.3 days in Quercus robur. This result highlights the potential of the blue region of the solar spectrum to be used as an extra cue that could help plants to regulate their spring phenology, alongside photoperiod and temperature. Understanding how plants combine photoreceptor-mediated cues with other environmental cues such as temperature to control phenology is essential if we are to accurately predict how tree species might respond to climate change.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1847
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Author Ahmed, AK; Sadik, MA
Title Study of sky brightness profiles of Baghdad and Karbala cities in Iraq Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Science and Nature Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 18-24
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract This study was used two detectors only i.e., the human eye and photometer of Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LU) during the time of sunrise and sunset. The human eye used to determine the moon's phase. The measurements of sky brightness, by using SQM-LU, performed via two locations that covered Baghdad and Karbala in Iraq from December 2016 through March 2017 intermittently. The research focused only on light perceived by detectors and not how it happens. The aim of research is to find a mathematical formula (i.e . brightness contrast) between the sky brightness against the solar altitude by taking moon illumination as the standard reference. Analytical software based on the Python's PyEphem astrometry library was developed to calculate the solar altitude at the two locations. Finally, the formula of sky brightness obtained from this work is an important key that contributed to finding the simulated sky brightness, when the sun's altitude is known.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1851
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Author Brüning, A.; Kloas, W.; Preuer, T.; Hölker, F.
Title Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.
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ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1858
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