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Author Meier, J.
Title Contentious Light: An Analytical Framework for Lighting Conflicts Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 62-77
Keywords Society; Lighting; Planning
Abstract This paper takes into view the broad range of contemporary conflicts regarding outdoor lighting. It proposes a working-definition that allows for differentiating lighting conflicts from other forms of lighting-related contention, as well as an analytical framework that allows for the structured description of individual lighting conflicts, and the comparative analysis of multiple cases. The analytical framework was developed based on the social-scientific analysis of media reports of existing conflict cases in Europe and North America, and informed by existing knowledge from the fields of lighting and conflict studies. A central challenge for developing such a framework is dealing with the high level of contingency and complexity of lighting conflicts. The framework reduces this complexity by focusing its field of vision to those aspects that are directly related to the lighting and its contestation. For each of these aspects, it provides sets of descriptive variables that allow for describing the conflicts’ individuality in a standardized – and thus comparable – way. The framework strictly separates the regarded aspects from their judgment by the conflict parties, making it possible to contrast their views on one and the same lighting situation. A visual template supports the process of analysis. It allows for depicting individual cases in short, and for clearly identifying where perspectives differ. At the multiple-case level, the framework not only opens up possibilities for spatial and temporal comparisons of lighting conflicts and the subsequent development of typologies, but also for harnessing their potential for informing the development of more sustainable planning and policy approaches for artificial lighting.
Address Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany; josiane.meier(at)tu-berlin.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher IJSL Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2190
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Author Wallace, H. D.
Title Electric Lighting Policy in the Federal Government, 1880-2016 Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords History; Policy; Lighting
Abstract Federal policies have targeted electric lighting since the 1880s with varying success. This dissertation examines the history of those policies to understand policy makers’ intent and how their decisions affected the course of events. This qualitative study poses three research questions: How have changes in lamp efficacy affected policy development? How and why have federal policies targeted electric lighting? How have private sector actors adapted public policy to further their own goals? The analysis uses an interdisciplinary approach taking advantage of overlapping methodologies drawn from policy and political sciences, economics, and the history of technology. The concepts of path dependency, context, and actor networks are especially important. Adoption of electric lighting spurred the construction of complex and capital intensive infrastructures now considered indispensable, and lighting always consumed a significant fraction of US electric power. Engineers and scientists created many lamps over the decades, in part to meet a growing demand for energy efficient products. Invention and diffusion of those lamps occurred amid changing standards and definitions of efficiency, shifting relations between network actors, and the development of path dependencies that constrained efforts to affect change. Federal actors typically used lighting policy to conserve resources, promote national security, or to symbolically emphasize the onset of a national crisis. The study shows that after an initial introductory phase, lighting-specific policies developed during two distinct periods. The earlier period consisted of intermittent, crisis-driven federal interventions of mixed success. The later period featured a sustained engagement between public and private sectors wherein incremental adjustments achieved policy goals. A time of transition occurred between the two main periods during which technical, economic, and political contexts changed, while several core social values remained constant. In both early and later periods, private sector actors used policy opportunities to further commercial goals, a practice that public sector actors in the later period used to promote policy acceptance. Recently enacted energy standards removing ordinary incandescent lamps in favor of high efficiency lamps mark the end of the later period. Apparent success means that policy makers should reconsider how they use lighting to achieve future goals.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher University of Maryland Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2210
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Author Palmer, M.; Gibbons, R.; Bhagavathula, R.; Holshouser, D.
Title Roadway Lighting’s Impact on Altering Soybean Growth – Volume 2: LED versus HPS Color Spectral Impact Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Technical Report Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume FHWA-ICT-18-009 Issue Pages
Keywords Plants
Abstract The impact of roadway lighting on soybean plant growth and development, was measured in situ at three locations in the state of Illinois. These locations were situated in close proximity of each other for the purpose of evaluating whether there was a difference in the soy response to HPS roadway lighting, versus soy lit by a specific model of 4,000K LED roadway lighting. The plant data collection included the reproductive-stage, the plant moisture content, and the dried seed weight after harvest. The impact of the type of roadway lighting on the reproduction stage and normalized yield was within the modeling confidence limits at a level of 90%. Modifications are recommended to the specification for roadway lighting trespass. This will minimize the impact on soybean plants based on the two roadway luminaire designs included in this study.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Illinois Center for Transportation/Illinois Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0197-9191 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2264
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K. M. & Xavia, K.
Title An overview of the cognitive and biological effects of city nighttime illumination including a London case study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Centre for Conscious Design Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Current scientific research demonstrates how critical the effects of city nighttime illumination are upon cognitive and biological health1 – which needs to be adequately acknowledged, understood and addressed by conscious cities and the plans they develop. Until recent decades, the design of nighttime lighting was determined mostly by electrical engineers who often applied technical standards to meet the requirements of vehicle-focused cities. Unfortunately, consideration of pedestrians and their visual needs to navigate throughout urbanscapes at night were ignored, and so too, was the impact that artificial lighting might have on them, and the environment. Today, the majority of urban city lighting has been installed without full awareness of its impact, and as a result, artificial light at night (ALAN) and light pollution have become an obvious public nuisance, a health risk and an environmental burden2,3. While poor lighting has its drawbacks, a lack of lighting can have many positive aspects, and urban settings can benefit from protecting, preserving and promoting natural darkness. We present two recent planning and design initiatives of London, in the UK, where the quality of light and value of darkness were not given the degree of attention and consideration they deserve. This paper has particular relevance for urban policy makers, city planners, architects, designers, consultants and researchers as it explores the various problems caused by the obvious lack of responsible nighttime illumination.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2296
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Author Manning, R., Newman, P., Barber, J., Monz, C., Hallo, J., & Lawson, S.
Title Principles for Studying and Managing Natural Quiet and Natural Darkness in National Parks and Other Protected Areas Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The George Wright Forum Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 350-362
Keywords Conservation; Planning; Regulation
Abstract A substantial body of research on natural quiet and natural darkness in national

parks, and protected areas more broadly, has been reported in the scientific and professional literature in recent years. However, this literature is widely scattered over many academic and professional journals that cover both the natural and social sciences. To help integrate and synthesize this body of work, we surveyed this diverse literature and collected representative examples in a book (Manning et al. 2018). We conclude our book with a series of principles

that we have distilled to help guide park managers to protect natural quiet and natural darkness. This paper presents those principles.

Much of our book focuses on national parks in the United States, and in the remainder of this paper the phrase “the national parks” refers to them. But we feel that the principles we have derived from our review of the scientific and professional literature on natural quiet and natural darkness apply equally well to a variety of parks and protected areas in the United States and elsewhere.

Natural quiet is generally defined as the sounds of nature uninterrupted by human-caused noise, and natural darkness is darkness unaffected by human-caused light. It is important to note that natural quiet and natural darkness do not necessarily mean absolute quiet or darkness, as the natural world often generates sounds of its own (e.g., birds calling, wind blowing,

rivers rushing) and has sources of illumination (e.g., the glow of celestial bodies and the fluorescence of some plants and animals).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2297
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