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Author Hansen, M.J.; Cocherell, D.E.; Cooke, S.J.; Patrick, P.H.; Sills, M.; Fangue, N.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioural guidance of Chinook salmon smolts: the variable effects of LED spectral wavelength and strobing frequency Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Exploiting species-specific behavioural responses of fish to light is an increasingly promising technique to reduce the entrainment or impingement of fish that results from the diversion of water for human activities, such as hydropower or irrigation. Whilst there is some evidence that white light can be an effective deterrent for Chinook salmon smolts, the results have been mixed. There is a need to test the response of fish to different spectra and strobing frequencies to improve deterrent performance. We tested the movement and spatial response of groups of four fish to combinations of light-emitting diode (LED) spectra (red, green, blue and white light) during the day and night, and strobing frequencies (constant and 2Hz) during the day, using innovative LED technology intended as a behavioural guidance device for use in the field. Whilst strobing did not alter fish behaviour when compared to constant light, the red light had a repulsive effect during the day, with fish under this treatment spending significantly less time in the half of the arena closest to the behavioural guidance device compared to both the control and blue light. Importantly, this effect disappeared at night, where there were no differences in movement and space use found between spectra. There was some evidence of a potential attractive response of fish to the blue and green light during the day. Under these light treatments, fish spent the highest amount of time closest to the behavioural guidance device. Further tests manipulating the light intensity in the different spectra are needed to verify the mechanistic determinants of the observed behaviours. Results are discussed in reference to the known spectral sensitivities of the cone and rod photopigments in these fish, and further experiments are suggested to better relate the work to mitigating the effects on fish of infrastructure used for hydropower and irrigation.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1947  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Yang, M.; Ma, N.; Zhu, Y.; Su, Y.-C.; Chen, Q.; Hsiao, F.-C.; Ji, Y.; Yang, C.-M.; Zhou, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract (up) Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 +/- 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.  
  Address Shenzhen Guohua Optoelectronics Tech. Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518110, China. guofu.zhou@m.scnu.edu.cn  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29543731 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1822  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Madahi, P.-G.; Ivan, O.; Adriana, B.; Diana, O.; Carolina, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Constant light during lactation programs circadian and metabolic systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 35 Issue 8 Pages 1153-1167  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Exposure to light at night is a disruptive condition for the adult circadian system, leading to arrhythmicity in nocturnal rodents. Circadian disruption is a risk factor for developing physiological and behavioral alterations, including weight gain and metabolic disease. During early stages of development, the circadian system undergoes a critical period of adjustment, and it is especially vulnerable to altered lighting conditions that may program its function, leading to long-term effects. We hypothesized that during lactation a disrupted light-dark cycle due to light at night may disrupt the circadian system and in the long term induce metabolic disorders. Here we explored in pups, short- and long-term effects of constant light (LL) during lactation. In the short term, LL caused a loss of rhythmicity and a reduction in the immunopositive cells of VIP, AVP, and PER1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the short term, the affection on the circadian clock in the pups resulted in body weight gain, loss of daily rhythms in general activity, plasma glucose and triglycerides (TG). Importantly, the DD conditions during development also induced altered daily rhythms in general activity and in the SCN. Exposure to LD conditions after lactation did not restore rhythmicity in the SCN, and the number of immunopositve cells to VIP, AVP, and PER1 remained reduced. In the long term, daily rhythmicity in general activity was restored; however, daily rhythms in glucose and TG remained disrupted, and daily mean levels of TG were significantly increased. Present results point out the programming role played by the LD cycle during early development in the function of the circadian system and on metabolism. This study points out the risk represented by exposure to an altered light-dark cycle during early stages of development. ABBREVIATIONS: AVP: arginine vasopressin peptide; CRY: cryptochrome; DD: constant darkness; DM: dorsomedial; LD: light-dark cycle; LL: constant light; NICUs: neonatal intensive care units; P: postnatal days; PER: period; S.E.M.: standard error of the mean; SCN: suprachiasmatic nucleus; TG: triglycerides; VIP: vasointestinal peptide; VL: ventrolateral; ZT: zeitgeber time.  
  Address a Facultad de Medicina , Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM , Mexico City , Mexico  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29688088 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1884  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wallace, H. D. openurl 
  Title Electric Lighting Policy in the Federal Government, 1880-2016 Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords History; Policy; Lighting  
  Abstract (up) Federal policies have targeted electric lighting since the 1880s with varying success. This dissertation examines the history of those policies to understand policy makers’ intent and how their decisions affected the course of events. This qualitative study poses three research questions: How have changes in lamp efficacy affected policy development? How and why have federal policies targeted electric lighting? How have private sector actors adapted public policy to further their own goals? The analysis uses an interdisciplinary approach taking advantage of overlapping methodologies drawn from policy and political sciences, economics, and the history of technology. The concepts of path dependency, context, and actor networks are especially important. Adoption of electric lighting spurred the construction of complex and capital intensive infrastructures now considered indispensable, and lighting always consumed a significant fraction of US electric power. Engineers and scientists created many lamps over the decades, in part to meet a growing demand for energy efficient products. Invention and diffusion of those lamps occurred amid changing standards and definitions of efficiency, shifting relations between network actors, and the development of path dependencies that constrained efforts to affect change. Federal actors typically used lighting policy to conserve resources, promote national security, or to symbolically emphasize the onset of a national crisis. The study shows that after an initial introductory phase, lighting-specific policies developed during two distinct periods. The earlier period consisted of intermittent, crisis-driven federal interventions of mixed success. The later period featured a sustained engagement between public and private sectors wherein incremental adjustments achieved policy goals. A time of transition occurred between the two main periods during which technical, economic, and political contexts changed, while several core social values remained constant. In both early and later periods, private sector actors used policy opportunities to further commercial goals, a practice that public sector actors in the later period used to promote policy acceptance. Recently enacted energy standards removing ordinary incandescent lamps in favor of high efficiency lamps mark the end of the later period. Apparent success means that policy makers should reconsider how they use lighting to achieve future goals.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher University of Maryland Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2210  
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Author Geronimo, R.; Franklin, E.; Brainard, R.; Elvidge, C.; Santos, M.; Venegas, R.; Mora, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping Fishing Activities and Suitable Fishing Grounds Using Nighttime Satellite Images and Maximum Entropy Modelling Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 10 Issue 10 Pages 1604  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract (up) Fisheries surveys over broad spatial areas are crucial in defining and delineating appropriate fisheries management areas. Yet accurate mapping and tracking of fishing activities remain largely restricted to developed countries with sufficient resources to use automated identification systems and vessel monitoring systems. For many countries, the spatial extent and boundaries of fishing grounds are not completely known. We used satellite images at night to detect fishing grounds in the Philippines for fishing gears that use powerful lights to attract coastal pelagic fishes. We used nightly boat detection data, extracted by U.S. NOAA from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), for the Philippines from 2012 to 2016, covering 1713 nights, to examine spatio-temporal patterns of fishing activities in the country. Using density-based clustering, we identified 134 core fishing areas (CFAs) ranging in size from 6 to 23,215 km2 within the Philippines’ contiguous maritime zone. The CFAs had different seasonal patterns and range of intensities in total light output, possibly reflecting differences in multi-gear and multi-species signatures of fishing activities in each fishing ground. Using maximum entropy modeling, we identified bathymetry and chlorophyll as the main environmental predictors of spatial occurrence of these CFAs when analyzed together, highlighting the multi-gear nature of the CFAs. Applications of the model to specific CFAs identified different environmental drivers of fishing distribution, coinciding with known oceanographic associations for a CFA’s dominant target species. This case study highlights nighttime satellite images as a useful source of spatial fishing effort information for fisheries, especially in Southeast Asia.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2033  
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