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Author Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J.
Title How ecological communities respond to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 394-400
Keywords Ecology
Abstract (up) Many ecosystems worldwide are exposed to artificial light at night (ALAN), from streetlights and other sources, and a wide range of organisms has been shown to respond to this anthropogenic pressure. This raises concerns about the consequences for major ecosystem functions and their stability. However, there is limited understanding of how whole ecological communities respond to ALAN, and this cannot be gained simply by making predictions from observed single species physiological, behavioral, or ecological responses. Research needs to include an important building block of ecological communities, namely the interactions between species that drive ecological and evolutionary processes in ecosystems. Here, we summarize current knowledge about community responses to ALAN and illustrate different pathways and their impact on ecosystem functioning and stability. We discuss that documentation of the impact of ALAN on species interaction networks and trait distributions provides useful tools to link changes in community structure to ecosystem functions. Finally, we suggest several approaches to advance research that will link the diverse impact of ALAN to changes in ecosystems.
Address Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin, Germany
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29656458 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1857
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Author Van Tatenhove, A.; Fayet, A.; Watanuki, Y.; Yoda, K.; Shoji, A.
Title Streaked Shearwater Calonectris leucomelas moonlight avoidance in response to low aerial predation pressure, and effects of wind speed and direction on colony attendance Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Marine Ornithology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 46 Issue Pages 177-185
Keywords Moonlight
Abstract (up) Many species of Procellaridae are nocturnal on their breeding grounds, exhibiting reduced activity during fuller moonlight, perhaps to avoid predation by predators that use the full moon to hunt after sunset. Among these nocturnal species, Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas have high wing loading and have difficulty taking off—especially with unfavorable wind conditions—thus potentially exacerbating moonlight avoidance. Effects of moonlight and wind conditions on the colony activity of this species, however, is poorly understood. We investigated the phenomenon by counting the departure and arrival of birds, and measuring ambient light intensity, local wind speed, and local wind direction at a breeding colony of Streaked Shearwaters on Awashima Island, Japan. Moon phase and ambient light had no significant effect on the frequency of arrivals or departures. Frequency of departures decreased significantly with increasing wind speed, but no effect was seen on arrivals, and wind direction had no effect on arrivals or departures. Our results indicate that: (1) wind speed may play an important role in Streaked Shearwater takeoff from the colony, and (2) moonlight avoidance is a plastic trait that may diminish in large-bodied shearwaters when few diurnal aerial predators are present.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2107
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Author Kelsey, E.C.; Felis, J.J.; Czapanskiy, M.; Pereksta, D.M.; Adams, J.
Title Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 227 Issue Pages 229-247
Keywords Animals
Abstract (up) Marine birds are vulnerable to collision with and displacement by offshore wind energy infrastructure (OWEI). Here we present the first assessment of marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the California Current System portion of the U.S. Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (POCS). Using population size, demography, life history, flight heights, and avoidance behavior for 62 seabird and 19 marine water bird species that occur in the POCS, we present and apply equations to calculate Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability to OWEI for each species. Species with greatest Population vulnerability included those listed as species of concern (e.g., Least Tern [Sternula antillarum], Marbled Murrelet [Brachyramphus marmoratus], Pink-footed Shearwater [Puffinus creatopus]) and resident year-round species with small population sizes (e.g., Ashy Storm-Petrel [Oceanodroma homochroa], Brandt's Cormorant [Phalacrocorax penicillatus], and Brown Pelican [Pelecanus occidentalis]). Species groups with the greatest Collision Vulnerability included jaegers/skuas, pelicans, terns and gulls that spend significant amounts of time flying at rotor sweep zone height and don't show macro-avoidance behavior (avoidance of entire OWEI area). Species groups with the greatest Displacement Vulnerability show high macro-avoidance behavior and low habitat flexibility and included loons, grebes, sea ducks, and alcids. Using at-sea survey data from the southern POCS, we combined species-specific vulnerabilities described above with at-sea species densities to assess vulnerabilities spatially. Spatial vulnerability densities were greatest in areas with high species densities (e.g., near-shore areas) and locations where species with high vulnerability were found in abundance. Our vulnerability assessment helps understand and minimize potential impacts of OWEI infrastructure on marine birds in the POCS and could inform management decisions.
Address U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center, Santa Cruz, CA 95062, USA
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30195148 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2122
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Author Hänel, A.; Posch, T.; Ribas, S.J.; Aubé, M.; Duriscoe, D.; Jechow, A.; Kollath, Z.; Lolkema, D.E.; Moore, C.; Schmidt, N.; Spoelstra, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 205 Issue Pages 278-290
Keywords skyglow
Abstract (up) Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earthâ??s atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the â??Sky Quality Meterâ? continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1731
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Author Buonfiglio, D.; Parthimos, R.; Dantas, R.; Cerqueira Silva, R.; Gomes, G.; Andrade-Silva, J.; Ramos-Lobo, A.; Amaral, F.G.; Matos, R.; Sinesio, J.J.; Motta-Teixeira, L.C.; Donato, J.J.; Reiter, R.J.; Cipolla-Neto, J.
Title Melatonin Absence Leads to Long-Term Leptin Resistance and Overweight in Rats Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
Volume 9 Issue Pages 122
Keywords Human health
Abstract (up) Melatonin (Mel), a molecule that conveys photoperiodic information to the organisms, is also involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Mechanisms of action of Mel in the energy balance remain unclear; herein we investigated how Mel regulates energy intake and expenditure to promote a proper energy balance. Male Wistar rats were assigned to control, control + Mel, pinealectomized (PINX) and PINX + Mel groups. To restore a 24-h rhythm, Mel (1 mg/kg) was added to the drinking water exclusively during the dark phase for 13 weeks. After this treatment period, rats were subjected to a 24-h fasting test, an acute leptin responsiveness test and cold challenge. Mel treatment reduced food intake, body weight, and adiposity. When challenged to 24-h fasting, Mel-treated rats also showed reduced hyperphagia when the food was replaced. Remarkably, PINX rats exhibited leptin resistance; this was likely related to the capacity of leptin to affect body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic signal-transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, all of which were reduced. Mel treatment restored leptin sensitivity in PINX rats. An increased hypothalamic expression of agouti-related peptide (Agrp), neuropeptide Y, and Orexin was observed in the PINX group while Mel treatment reduced the expression of Agrp and Orexin. In addition, PINX rats presented lower UCP1 protein levels in the brown adipose tissue and required higher tail vasoconstriction to get a proper thermogenic response to cold challenge. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized interaction of Mel and leptin in the hypothalamus to regulate the energy balance. These findings may help to explain the high incidence of metabolic diseases in individuals exposed to light at night.
Address Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences-I, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1664-2392 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29636725; PMCID:PMC5881424 Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2093
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