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Author Giraudeau, M.; Sepp, T.; Ujvari, B.; Ewald, P.W.; Thomas, F.
Title Human activities might influence oncogenic processes in wild animal populations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 2 Issue Pages 1065-1070
Keywords Commentary; Animals
Abstract (up) Based on the abundant studies available on humans showing clear associations between rapid environmental changes and the rate of neoplasia, we propose that human activities might increase cancer rate in wild populations through numerous processes. Most of the research on this topic has concentrated on wildlife cancer prevalence in environments that are heavily contaminated with anthropogenic chemicals. Here, we propose that human activities might also increase cancer rate in wild populations through additional processes including light pollution, accidental (for example, human waste) or intentional (for example, bird feeders) wildlife feeding (and the associated change of diet), or reduction of genetic diversity in human-impacted habitats. The human species can thus be defined as an oncogenic species, moderating the environment in the way that it causes cancer in other wild populations. As human impacts on wildlife are predicted to increase rather than decrease (for example, in the context of urbanization), acknowledging the possible links between human activity and cancer in wild populations is crucial.
Address MIVEGEC, Montpellier, France. frederic.thomas2@ird.fr
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29784981 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1921
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Author Russo, D., Ancillotto, L., Cistrone, L., Libralato, N., Domer, A., Cohen, S., Korine, C.
Title Effects of artificial illumination on drinking bats: a field test in forest and desert habitats Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract (up) Bats show pronounced and often‐adverse reactions to artificial illumination at night (ALAN) when commuting, roosting or foraging. ALAN also affects bat drinking activity, at least when lighting occurs over short intervals. We tested whether continuous illumination of drinking sites over 4‐h periods would lead bats to tolerate ALAN and resume drinking in the course of the night. We conducted our experiments in forest (Italy) and desert (Israel) sites to test whether in the latter habitat, where water is scarce, a greater motivation to drink might lead to less adverse bat reactions. We recorded 6853 drinking buzzes and 1647 feeding buzzes from 17 species and one species group. In the forest sites, species that hunt in open spaces or along forest edges showed little (P. pipistrellus and H. savii) or no (P. kuhlii and N. leisleri) drinking activity decrease, while those associated with forest interiors (Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus auritus and bats in the genus Myotis) exhibited a strong negative response. In the desert sites, all studied species reduced drinking activity, yet in the desert populations of P. kuhlii we recorded stronger adverse reactions only far from human settlements. The harsh reactions that the desert bat species showed towards ALAN rule out any effect of a greater motivation to drink. Illumination had no effect on foraging by most species, except in the forest sites, where Pipistrellus kuhlii and Nyctalus leisleri increased foraging when the light was on, and in the desert sites, where Hypsugo bodenheimeri decreased foraging in such situations. The progressive human encroachment that is taking place in many world regions on both forests and especially deserts, where few sites for drinking are available, may jeopardize bat populations also through increased exposure to ALAN.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2075
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Author Price, J.T.; Drye, B.; Domangue, R.J.; Paladino, F.V.
Title Exploring The Role of Artificial Lighting in Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) Nest-Site Selection and Hatchling Disorientation Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Herpetological Conservation and Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 415-422
Keywords Animals
Abstract (up) Beachfront artificial lighting can deter nesting sea turtles and disrupt the seaward orientation of hatchlings following their emergence from the nest. We investigated the effects of variable artificial lighting along the 17.5-km beachfront of St. George Island, Florida, USA on both nesting and hatchling Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta). We hypothesized that illumination affects nest-site selection and hatchling orientation of Loggerhead Turtles. We predicted that zones with higher artificial luminance levels would have a reduced number of nests laid by Loggerhead Turtles, as well as an increased hatchling disorientation rate. We divided the beachfront into zones 500 m in length and recorded nighttime luminance measurements with a photometer throughout the 2015 nesting season. The 2015 luminance values were analyzed together with Loggerhead Turtle nesting data from the 2015 season, as well as related to a longer-term dataset from 2011–2015. We found a negative relationship between nestsite selection and the intensity of artificial luminance, such that the brighter zones along the beachfront had fewer nests. Within this relationship, we found that nest density was significantly lower above a beachfront luminance value of ~800 μcd/m2. Finally, we found that hatchling disorientations occurred more frequently in zones with greater luminance. While many factors can affect nesting and hatchling Loggerhead behavior, our results suggest that variable intensities of artificial lighting at a nesting site may lead to a spatially clumped arrangement of nests and hatchling disorientations. These results can help improve the conservation and protection of nesting habitat as they further our understanding of the effects of artificial beachfront lighting on Loggerhead Turtles.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2106
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Author Yao, Q.; Wang, H.; Uttley, J.; Zhuang, X.
Title Illuminance Reconstruction of Road Lighting in Urban Areas for Efficient and Healthy Lighting Performance Evaluation Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Applied Sciences Abbreviated Journal Applied Sciences
Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 1646
Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting; Planning
Abstract (up) Big lighting data are required for evaluation of lighting performance and impacts on human beings, environment, and ecology for smart urban lighting. However, traditional approaches of measuring road lighting cannot achieve this aim. We propose a rule-of-thumb model approach based on some feature points to reconstruct road lighting in urban areas. We validated the reconstructed illuminance with both software simulated and real road lighting scenes, and the average error is between 6 and 19%. This precision is acceptable in practical applications. Using this approach, we reconstructed the illuminance of three real road lighting environments in a block and further estimated the mesopic luminance and melanopic illuminance performance. In the future, by virtue of Geographic Information System technology, the approach may provide big lighting data for evaluation and analysis, and help build smarter urban lighting.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2076-3417 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2003
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Author Point, S.
Title Blue Light Hazard: are exposure limit values protective enough for newborn infants? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Radioprotection Abbreviated Journal
Volume 53 Issue 3 Pages 219-224
Keywords Human Health
Abstract (up) Blue Light Hazard is an emerging concern for health of population. Nevertheless, acute exposure to blue rays from artificial light is well taken into account by normative requirements applicable to lamps engineering and risk for general population is low. There is also no evidence for a chronic effect of artificial lighting on retina for general population at radiance below exposure limit values. That said, children in the very first years of life constitute a specific population to consider. On one side, eye anatomy of very young infants is different from elder young people or adults. On the other side, infants can be in close contact with some luminous toys or night lights. This paper presents a first approach for taking into account the specific anatomy of newborn infants’ eyes in blue light hazard evaluation. Results show that differences of crystalline lens transparency, focal length and pupil diameter could induce a significantly higher retinal exposure than for adult.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1982
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