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Author Correa-Cano, M.E.; Goettsch, B.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Erosion of natural darkness in the geographic ranges of cacti Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 4347  
  Keywords Plants; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Naturally dark nighttime environments are being widely eroded by the introduction of artificial light at night (ALAN). The biological impacts vary with the intensity and spectrum of ALAN, but have been documented from molecules to ecosystems. How globally severe these impacts are likely to be depends in large part on the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution of ALAN and that of the geographic ranges of species. Here, we determine this relationship for the Cactaceae family. Using maps of the geographic ranges of cacti and nighttime stable light composite images for the period 1992 to 2012, we found that a high percentage of cactus species were experiencing ALAN within their ranges in 1992, and that this percentage had increased by 2012. For almost all cactus species (89.7%) the percentage of their geographic range that was lit increased from 1992-1996 to 2008-2012, often markedly. There was a significant negative relationship between the species richness of an area, and that of threatened species, and the level of ALAN. Cacti could be particularly sensitive to this widespread and ongoing intrusion of ALAN into their geographic ranges, especially when considering the potential for additive and synergistic interactions with the impacts of other anthropogenic pressures.  
  Address (down) Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29531261; PMCID:PMC5847551 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1824  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting up the nighttime Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 362 Issue 6416 Pages 744-746  
  Keywords Commentary  
  Abstract Among the most visually compelling images of the whole Earth have been those created using data obtained at night by astronauts or from satellites. The proliferation in use of electric lighting—including from industrial, commercial, municipal, and domestic sources—is striking. It sketches the spatial distribution of much of the human population, outlining a substantial proportion of the world's coastline, highlighting a multitude of towns and cities, and drawing the major highways that connect them. The data embodied in these nighttime images have been used to estimate and map levels of energy use, urbanization, and economic activity. They have also been key in focusing attention on the environmental impacts of the artificial light at night itself. Explicit steps need to be taken to limit these impacts, which vary according to the intensity, spectrum, spatial extent, and temporal dynamics of this lighting.  
  Address (down) Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30442788 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2058  
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Author Rahman, S.A.; St Hilaire, M.A.; Gronfier, C.; Chang, A.-M.; Santhi, N.; Czeisler, C.A.; Klerman, E.B.; Lockley, S.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Functional decoupling of melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol  
  Volume 596 Issue 11 Pages 2147-2157  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract KEY POINTS: There is assumed to be a monotonic association between melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting induced by light exposure. We tested the association between melatonin suppression and phase resetting in humans. Sixteen young healthy participants received nocturnal bright light ( approximately 9500 lux) exposure of continuous or intermittent patterns, and different durations ranging from 12 min to 6.5 h. Intermittent exposure patterns showed significant phase shifts with disproportionately less melatonin suppression. Each and every bright light stimulus in an intermittent exposure pattern induced a similar degree of melatonin suppression, but did not appear to cause an equal magnitude of phase shift. These results suggest that phase shifts and melatonin suppression are functionally independent such that one cannot be used as a proxy measure of the other. ABSTRACT: Continuous experimental light exposures show that, in general, the conditions that produce greater melatonin suppression also produce greater phase shift, leading to the assumption that one can be used as a proxy for the other. We tested this association in 16 healthy individuals who participated in a 9-day inpatient protocol by assessing melatonin suppression and phase resetting in response to a nocturnal light exposure (LE) of different patterns: (i) dim-light control (<3 lux; n = 6) or (ii) two 12-min intermittent bright light pulses (IBL) separated by 36 min of darkness ( approximately 9500 lux; n = 10). We compared these results with historical data from additional LE patterns: (i) dim-light control (<3 lux; n = 11); (ii) single continuous bright light exposure of 12 min (n = 9), 1.0 h (n = 10) or 6.5 h (n = 6); or (iii) an IBL light pattern consisting of six 15-min pulses with 1.0 h dim-light recovery intervals between them during a total of 6.5 h (n = 7). All light exposure groups had significantly greater phase-delay shifts than the dim-light control condition (P < 0.0001). While a monotonic association between melatonin suppression and circadian phase shift was observed, intermittent exposure patterns showed significant phase shifts with disproportionately less melatonin suppression. Each and every IBL stimulus induced a similar degree of melatonin suppression, but did not appear to cause an equal magnitude of phase shift. These results suggest unique specificities in how light-induced phase shifts and melatonin suppression are mediated such that one cannot be used as a proxy measure of the other.  
  Address (down) Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29707782 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1887  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Scheuermaier, K.; Munch, M.; Ronda, J.M.; Duffy, J.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Improved cognitive morning performance in healthy older adults following blue-enriched light exposure on the previous evening Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 348 Issue Pages 267-275  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: Exposure to light can have acute alerting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. METHODS: Ten healthy older adults (average age=63.3 yrs; 6F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days. Participants were randomized to either BEL or WL of the same irradiance for the four evening light exposures. On the next mornings at 2, 12, 22 and 32min after each wake time, the participants completed a 90-s digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) to assess working memory, and objective alertness was assessed using a wake EEG recording. DSST and power density from the wake EEG recordings were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: DSST performance improved with time awake (p<0.0001) and across study days in both light exposure groups (p<0.0001). There was no main effect of group, although we observed a significant day x group interaction (p=0.0004), whereby participants exposed to BEL performed significantly better on the first two mornings after light exposures than participants in WL (post-hoc, p<0.05). On those days, the BEL group showed higher EEG activity in some of the frequency bins in the sigma and beta range (p<0.05) on the wake EEG. CONCLUSION: Exposure to blue-enriched white light in the evening significantly improved DSST performance the following morning when compared to polychromatic white light. This was associated with a higher level of objective alertness on the wake EEG, but not with changes in sleep or circadian timing.  
  Address (down) Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29684473 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1899  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Tarquini, R.; Carbone, A.; Martinez, M.; Mazzoccoli, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Daylight saving time and circadian rhythms in the neuro-endocrine-immune system: impact on cardiovascular health Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Internal and Emergency Medicine Abbreviated Journal Intern Emerg Med  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address (down) Division of Internal Medicine and Laboratory of Chronobiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Fondazione IRCCS “Casa Sollievo Della Sofferenza”, Cappuccini Avenue, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, 71013, Italy. g.mazzoccoli@operapadrepio.it  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1828-0447 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30488154 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2121  
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