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Author Zhou, Y.; Li, X.; Asrar, G.R.; Smith, S.J.; Imhoff, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A global record of annual urban dynamics (1992–2013) from nighttime lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 219 Issue Pages 206-220  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The nighttime light (NTL) observations from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescane System (DMSP/OLS) offer great potentials to study urban dynamics from regional to global scales, for more than two decades. In this paper, we presented a new approach to develop spatially and temporally consistent global urban maps from 1992 to 2013, using the DMSP/OLS NTL observations. First, potential urban clusters were delineated using the NTL data and a segmentation method. Then, a quantile-based approach was used to remove rural and suburban areas sequentially in the potential urban clusters. Finally, the derived series of urban extents in the entire study period (1992–2013) were improved for temporal consistency. We found the percentage of global urban areas relative to the world's land surface area increased from 0.23% in 1992 to 0.53% in 2013. Asia is the continent with the most significant urban growth, worldwide. The time series of global urban maps were evaluated for the spatial agreement and temporal consistency using a variety of widely used independent land-cover products. This evaluation indicates that the proposed approach is robust and performs well in deriving global urban dynamics across different spatial scales, i.e., cluster, province (or state), country, and region. Moreover, this quantile-based approach is advantageous, compared with other methods used in previous studies, because it does not require additional data for enhancement or calibration. The new time series of urban maps from this study offer a new dataset for studying global urbanization during the past decades and unique information to explore potential future trajectories of urban development, which appears to be distinct for different nations/regions, globally. Such information is pre-requisite for achieving the sustainable development goals, and associated targets, during ensuing decades.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2048  
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Author Ernst, S.; Łabuz, M.; Środa, K.; Kotulski, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Graph-Based Spatial Data Processing and Analysis for More Efficient Road Lighting Design Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 10 Issue 11 Pages 3850  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The efficiency and affordability of modern street lighting equipment are improving quickly, but systems used to manage and design lighting installations seem to lag behind. One of their problems is the lack of consistent methods to integrate all relevant data. Tools used to manage lighting infrastructure are not aware of the geographic characteristics of the lit areas, and photometric calculation software requires a lot of manual editing by the designer, who needs to assess the characteristics of roads, define the segments, and assign the lighting classes according to standards. In this paper, we propose a graph-based method to integrate geospatial data from various sources to support the process of data preparation for photometric calculations. The method uses graph transformations to define segments and assign lighting classes. A prototype system was developed to conduct experiments using real-world data. The proposed approach is compared to results obtained by professional designers in a case study; the method was also applied to several European cities to assess its efficiency. The obtained results are much more fine-grained than those yielded by the traditional approach; as a result, the lighting is more adequate, especially when used in conjunction with automated optimisation tools.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2051  
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Author Kawasaki, A.; Wisniewski, S.; Healey, B.; Pattyn, N.; Kunz, D.; Basner, M.; Münch, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of long-term daylight deprivation on retinal light sensitivity, circadian rhythms and sleep during the Antarctic winter Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Long-term daylight deprivation such as during the Antarctic winter has been shown to lead to delayed sleep timing and sleep fragmentation. We aimed at testing whether retinal sensitivity, sleep and circadian rest-activity will change during long-term daylight deprivation on two Antarctic bases (Concordia and Halley VI) in a total of 25 healthy crew members (mean age: 34 ± 11y; 7f). The pupil responses to different light stimuli were used to assess retinal sensitivity changes. Rest-activity cycles were continuously monitored by activity watches. Overall, our data showed increased pupil responses under scotopic (mainly rod-dependent), photopic (mainly L-/M-cone dependent) as well as bright-blue light (mainly melanopsin-dependent) conditions during the time without direct sunlight. Circadian rhythm analysis revealed a significant decay of intra-daily stability, indicating more fragmented rest-activity rhythms during the dark period. Sleep and wake times (as assessed from rest-activity recordings) were significantly delayed after the first month without sunlight (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that during long-term daylight deprivation, retinal sensitivity to blue light increases, whereas circadian rhythm stability decreases and sleep-wake timing is delayed.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2053  
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Bazilian, M.D.; Zhizhin, M.; Ghosh, T.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.-C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The potential role of natural gas flaring in meeting greenhouse gas mitigation targets Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energy Strategy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Energy Strategy Reviews  
  Volume 20 Issue Pages 156-162  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract In this paper, we compare 2015 satellite-derived natural gas (gas) flaring data with the greenhouse gas reduction targets presented by those countries in their nationally determined contributions (NDC) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Paris Agreement. Converting from flaring to utilization is an attractive option for reducing emissions. The analysis rates the potential role of reduction of gas flaring in meeting country-specific NDC targets. The analysis includes three categories of flaring: upstream in oil and gas production areas, downstream at refineries and transport facilities, and industrial (e.g., coal mines, landfills, water treatment plants, etc.). Upstream flaring dominates with 90.6% of all flaring. Global flaring represents less than 2% of the NDC reduction target. However, most gas flaring is concentrated in a limited set of countries, leaving the possibility that flaring reduction could contribute a sizeable portion of the NDC targets for specific countries. States that could fully meet their NDC targets through gas flaring reductions include: Yemen (240%), Algeria (197%), and Iraq (136%). Countries which could meet a substantial portion of their NDC targets with gas flaring reductions include: Gabon (94%), Algeria (48%), Venezuela (47%), Iran (34%), and Sudan (33%). On the other hand, several countries with large flared gas volumes could only meet a small portion of their NDC targets from gas flaring reductions, including the Russian Federation (2.4%) and the USA (0.1%). These findings may be useful in guiding national level efforts to meet NDC greenhouse gas reduction targets.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211467X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2055  
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Author Min, J.-young; Min, K.-bok url  doi
openurl 
  Title Outdoor Artificial Nighttime Light and Use of Hypnotic Medications in Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Jcsm  
  Volume 14 Issue 11 Pages 1903-1910  
  Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Study Objectives

Outdoor artificial nighttime light is increasingly recognized as a form of environmental pollution. Excessive nighttime light exposure, whether from indoor or outdoor sources, has been associated with a number of deleterious effects on human health. We performed a population-based cohort study in South Korea to assess the possible association between outdoor nocturnal lighting and insomnia in older adults, as measured by prescriptions for hypnotic drugs.

Methods

This study used data from the 2002–2013 National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), and a total of 52,027 adults who were age 60 years or older were included in the study. Light data were based on satellite mapping of artificial light. The usage data of two hypnotic drugs, zolpidem (N05CF02) and triazolam (N05CD05), were extracted from the NHIS-NSC records.

Results

Of the 52,027 patients in this cohort, 11,738 (22%) had prescriptions for hypnotic drugs. Increasing outdoor artificial nighttime light exposure (stratified by quartile) was associated with an increased prevalence of hypnotic prescriptions and daily dose intake. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile 1, the regression coefficients for prescription days and daily defined doses of all hypnotic drugs and certain hypotonic drugs were significantly higher among those living in areas with higher outdoor artificial nighttime light (quartiles 2 through 4).

Conclusions

Outdoor artificial nighttime light exposure was significantly associated with prescription of hypnotic drugs in older adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that outdoor artificial nighttime light may cause sleep disturbances.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1550-9389 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2060  
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