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Author Shlayan, N.; Challapali, K.; Cavalcanti, D.; Oliveira, T.; Yang, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Novel Illuminance Control Strategy for Roadway Lighting Based on Greenshields Macroscopic Traffic Model Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication IEEE Photonics Journal Abbreviated Journal IEEE Photonics J.  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 1-11  
  Keywords Lighting; Planning; Economics  
  Abstract Most street lights currently deployed have constant illumination levels or vary

based on a predetermined schedule. However, with advances in lighting controls, intelligent transportation systems, and the efforts of transportation agencies at regional and national levels to better sustain and manage the transportation system by monitoring the roadway network, many different types of real-time traffic data are available; which enables the implementation of a traffic responsive outdoor light system. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has proposed a class-based lighting control model based on a number of roadway parameters, some of which are traffic related. However, the adaptation of the available traffic data to the existing model is not obvious. In addition, the CIE model can be improved to better reflect traffic characteristics to increase energy efficiency of the overall street lighting system. The intention of this research is to quantify the relationship between real-time traffic, and roadway lighting and to develop a control strategy based on real-time traffic data in order to reduce light energy consumption, enhance safety, and maximize throughput of the roadway. Significant energy savings were observed when the proposed control strategy was implemented in two case studies using available lighting and traffic data for Washington, DC, and Montgomery County, MD, representing urban and rural roadway networks, respectively.
 
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  ISSN 1943-0655 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1850  
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Author Ahmed, AK; Sadik, MA url  openurl
  Title Study of sky brightness profiles of Baghdad and Karbala cities in Iraq Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Science and Nature Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 18-24  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract This study was used two detectors only i.e., the human eye and photometer of Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LU) during the time of sunrise and sunset. The human eye used to determine the moon's phase. The measurements of sky brightness, by using SQM-LU, performed via two locations that covered Baghdad and Karbala in Iraq from December 2016 through March 2017 intermittently. The research focused only on light perceived by detectors and not how it happens. The aim of research is to find a mathematical formula (i.e . brightness contrast) between the sky brightness against the solar altitude by taking moon illumination as the standard reference. Analytical software based on the Python's PyEphem astrometry library was developed to calculate the solar altitude at the two locations. Finally, the formula of sky brightness obtained from this work is an important key that contributed to finding the simulated sky brightness, when the sun's altitude is known.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1851  
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Author Mulvin, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Media Prophylaxis: Night Modes and the Politics of Preventing Harm Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Information & Culture Abbreviated Journal Information & Culture  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 175-202  
  Keywords Human Health; Society  
  Abstract This article develops the term “media prophylaxis” to analyze the ways technologies are applied to challenges of calibrating one’s body with its environment and as defenses against endemic, human-made harms. In recent years, self-illuminated screens (like those of computers, phones, and tablets) have been identified by scientists, journalists, and concerned individuals as particularly pernicious sources of sleep-disrupting light. By tracing the history of circadian research, the effects of light on sleep patterns, and the recent appearance of software like “f.lux,” Apple’s “Night Shift,” and “Twilight,” this article shows how media-prophylactic technologies can individualize responsibility for preventing harm while simultaneously surfacing otherwise ignored forms of chronic suffering.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2164-8034 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1853  
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Author Brüning, A.; Kloas, W.; Preuer, T.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1858  
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Author Do, Q.-T.; Shapiro, J.N.; Elvidge, C.D.; Abdel-Jelil, M.; Ahn, D.P.; Baugh, K.; Hansen-Lewis, J.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Terrorism, geopolitics, and oil security: Using remote sensing to estimate oil production of the Islamic State Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energy Research & Social Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Research & Social Science  
  Volume 44 Issue Pages 411-418  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics  
  Abstract As the world’s most traded commodity, oil production is typically well monitored and analyzed. It also has established links to geopolitics, international relations, and security. Despite this attention, the illicit production, refining, and trade of oil and derivative products occur all over the world and provide significant revenues outside of the oversight and regulation of governments. A prominent manifestation of this phenomenon is how terrorist and insurgent organizations—including the Islamic State group, also known as ISIL/ISIS or Daesh—use oil as a revenue source. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in production can help determine the scale of operations, technical capacity, and revenue streams. This information, in turn, can inform both security and reconstruction strategies. To this end, we use satellite multi-spectral imaging and ground-truth pre-war output data to effectively construct a real-time census of oil production in areas controlled by the ISIL terrorist group. More broadly, remotely measuring the activity of extractive industries in conflict-affected areas without reliable administrative data can support a broad range of public policy and decisions and military operations.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2214-6296 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1864  
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