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Author (up) Bará, S.; Rodríguez-Arós, Á.; Pérez, M.; Tosar, B.; Lima, R.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Estimating the relative contribution of streetlights, vehicles, and residential lighting to the urban night sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res & Tech  
  Volume Issue October 2018 Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; traffic; Roadway lighting  
  Abstract Under stable atmospheric conditions the brightness of the urban sky varies throughout the night following the time course of the anthropogenic emissions of light. Different types of artificial light sources (e.g. streetlights, residential, and vehicle lights) have specific time signatures, and this feature makes it possible to estimate the amount of brightness contributed by each of them. Our approach is based on transforming the time representation of the zenithal night sky brightness into a modal expansion in terms of the time signatures of the different sources of light. The modal coefficients, and hence the absolute and relative contributions of each type of source, can be estimated by means of a linear least squares fit. A practical method for determining the time signatures of different contributing sources is also described, based on wide-field time-lapse photometry of the urban nightscape. Our preliminary results suggest that, besides the dominant streetlight contribution, artificial light leaking out of the windows of residential buildings may account for a significant share of the time-varying part of the zenithal night sky brightness at the measurement locations, whilst the contribution of the vehicle lights seems to be significantly smaller.  
  Address Área de Óptica, Dept. Física Aplicada, Facultade de Óptica e Optometría, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Galicia, Spain. salva.bara(at)usc.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2052  
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Author (up) Barentine, J.C.; Walker, C.E.; Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Juan, A.; Kanemoto, J.; Monrad, C.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skyglow Changes Over Tucson, Arizona, Resulting From A Municipal LED Street Lighting Conversion Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 212 Issue Pages 10-23  
  Keywords Skyglow; Tucson; Arizona; LED; modeling; radiative transfer; LED  
  Abstract The transition from earlier lighting technologies to white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a significant change in the use of artificial light at night. LEDs emit considerably more short-wavelength light into the environment than earlier technologies on a per-lumen basis. Radiative transfer models predict increased skyglow over cities transitioning to LED unless the total lumen output of new lighting systems is reduced. The City of Tucson, Arizona (U.S.), recently converted its municipal street lighting system from a mixture of fully shielded high- and low-pressure sodium (HPS/LPS) luminaires to fully shielded 3000 K white LED luminaires. The lighting design intended to minimize increases to skyglow in order to protect the sites of nearby astronomical observatories without compromising public safety. This involved the migration of over 445 million fully shielded HPS/LPS lumens to roughly 142 million fully shielded 3000 K white LED lumens and an expected concomitant reduction in the amount of visual skyglow over Tucson. SkyGlow Simulator models predict skyglow decreases on the order of 10-20% depending on whether fully shielded or partly shielded lights are in use. We tested this prediction using visual night sky brightness estimates and luminance-calibrated, panchromatic all-sky imagery at 15 locations in and near the city. Data were obtained in 2014, before the LED conversion began, and in mid-2017 after approximately 95% of  ~18,000 luminaires was converted. Skyglow differed marginally, and in all cases with valid data changed by  <±20%. Over the same period, the city’s upward-directed optical radiance detected from Earth orbit decreased by approximately 7%. While these results are not conclusive, they suggest that LED conversions paired with dimming can reduce skyglow over cities.  
  Address International Dark-Sky Association, 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA; john(at)darksky.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1819  
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Author (up) Beccali, M.; Bonomolo, M.; Leccese, F.; Lista, D.; Salvadori, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On the impact of safety requirements, energy prices and investment costs in street lighting refurbishment design Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energy Abbreviated Journal Energy  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Lighting; Economics; Energy; Planning  
  Abstract Street lighting is an indispensable feature for the night landscape of cities. It is important for road safety, users visual comfort, crime prevention and to augment the perceived personal safety. Realize and maintain an adequate street lighting service is very expensive for municipalities with significant impact on their budgets. For this reason, special attention should be paid to the design of new street lighting systems and to the refurbishment of existing ones, since many of them are inadequate. In light of this it is very important to implement street lighting designs that fulfil lighting requirements avoiding energy waste and light pollution and, at the same time, result economically sustainable for municipalities. In this paper, an original step by step methodology for the lighting, energy and economic analysis of street lighting refurbishment designs has been introduced and explained in detail. The methodology is suitable for use in cities of different sizes. As an applicative example, the methodology has been tested in the town of Pontedera (Italy) and the results are discussed, also providing a sensitivity analysis of the economic feasibility with respect to the variations of electricity prices and investment costs.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-5442 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2020  
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Author (up) Behera, S.K.; Mohanta, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Total An Investigation into Light Pollution as a Limiting factor for shift of Mass nesting ground at Rushikulya rookery Ganjam Odishas Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication American Journal of Marine Research and Reviews Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1 Issue 6 Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Illumination due to artificial lights on nesting beaches and from nearby place to nesting beaches is detrimental to sea turtles because it alters critical nocturnal behaviors specifically, their choice of nesting sites and their return path to the sea after nesting. Illuminations perplex the hatchlings to find sea after emerging. Numerous studies conducted in other countries have demonstrated that artificial lights negatively impact on turtles, both female adults as they come to and go from their home beach to lay eggs, and to turtle hatchlings as they seek out the way to the open ocean. In this study we correlated the mass nesting intensity of 5years (2012 to 2018) at Rushikulya mass nesting site to the illumination zone. Illumination due to light conditions on nesting beaches are complex, and measuring light pollution in a way that effectively captures the impacts to sea turtles is difficult. But increase in intensity of illumination on selective mass nesting beaches showed gradual reduction in intensity of preferred nesting site during the mass nesting event. A gradual shift of nesting preference was also observed more toward darker zone.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2104  
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Author (up) Benfield, J.A.; Nutt, R.J.; Taff, B.D.; Miller, Z.D.; Costigan, H.; Newman, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A laboratory study of the psychological impact of light pollution in National Parks Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Environmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Psychology  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 67-72  
  Keywords Conservation; Skyglow; Psychology  
  Abstract Light pollution is ubiquitous in much of the developed and developing world, including rural and wilderness areas. Other sources of pollution, such as noise or motorized vehicle emissions, are known to impact the perceived quality of natural settings as well as the psychological well-being and satisfaction of visitors to those locations, but the effects of light pollution on visitors to natural settings is largely unstudied. Using experimental manipulations of light pollution levels in virtual reality simulations of three U.S. National Parks, the current study aimed to provide initial evidence of an effect on visitors. Results show that light pollution impacts a range of psychological and scene evaluation dimensions but that pristine night skies are not necessarily viewed as the ideal, likely due to being viewed as unfamiliar or unrealistic because so few have experienced the true baseline.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-4944 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1941  
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