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Author (up) Gaston, K.J.
Title Lighting up the nighttime Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume 362 Issue 6416 Pages 744-746
Keywords Commentary
Abstract Among the most visually compelling images of the whole Earth have been those created using data obtained at night by astronauts or from satellites. The proliferation in use of electric lighting—including from industrial, commercial, municipal, and domestic sources—is striking. It sketches the spatial distribution of much of the human population, outlining a substantial proportion of the world's coastline, highlighting a multitude of towns and cities, and drawing the major highways that connect them. The data embodied in these nighttime images have been used to estimate and map levels of energy use, urbanization, and economic activity. They have also been key in focusing attention on the environmental impacts of the artificial light at night itself. Explicit steps need to be taken to limit these impacts, which vary according to the intensity, spectrum, spatial extent, and temporal dynamics of this lighting.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30442788 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2058
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Author (up) Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A.
Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review
Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841
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Author (up) Gaston, M.S.; Pereyra, L.C.; Vaira, M.
Title Artificial light at night and captivity induces differential effects on leukocyte profile, body condition, and erythrocyte size of a diurnal toad Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Amphibians; Toads
Abstract Light pollution or artificial lighting at night (ALAN) is an emerging threat to biodiversity that can disrupt physiological processes and behaviors. Because ALAN stressful effects are little studied in diurnal amphibian species, we investigated if chronic ALAN exposure affects the leukocyte profile, body condition, and blood cell sizes of a diurnal toad. We hand-captured male toads of Melanophryniscus rubriventris in Angosto de Jaire (Jujuy, Argentina). We prepared blood smears from three groups of toads: “field” (toads processed in the field immediately after capture), “natural light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with natural photoperiod), and “constant light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with constant photoperiod/ALAN). We significantly observed higher neutrophil proportions and neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio in toads under constant light treatment. In addition, we observed significantly better body condition and higher erythrocyte size in field toads compared with captive toads. In summary, ALAN can trigger a leukocyte response to stress in males of the diurnal toad M. rubriventris. In addition, captivity can affect the body condition and erythrocyte size of these toads.
Address Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas (INECOA), Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, CONICET, San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30320969 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2049
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Author (up) Gaydecki, P.
Title Automated moth flight analysis in the vicinity of artificial light Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Bulletin of Entomological Research Abbreviated Journal Bull Entomol Res
Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 127-140
Keywords Instrumentation; Animals
Abstract Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7.1 m, depending upon the experiment. Moths were imaged in early September, at night and in field conditions, using a ground level video camera with associated optics including a heated steering mirror, wide angle lens and an electronic image intensifier. Moth flight coordinates were recorded at a rate of 50 images per second (fields) and transferred to a computer using a light pen (the only non-automated operation in the processing sequence). Software extracted ground speed vectors and, by instantaneous subtraction of wind speed data supplied by fast-response anemometers, the airspeed vectors. Accumulated density profiles of the track data revealed that moths spend most of their time at a radius of between 40 and 50 cm from the source, and rarely fly directly above it, from close range. Furthermore, the proportion of insects caught by the trap as a proportion of the number influenced by the light (and within the field of view of the camera) was very low; of 1600 individual tracks recorded over five nights, a total of only 12 were caught. Although trap efficiency is strongly dependent on trap height, time of night, season, moonlight and weather, the data analysis confirmed that moths do not exhibit straightforward positive phototaxis. In general, trajectory patterns become more complex with reduced distance from the illumination, with higher recorded values of speeds and angular velocities. However, these characteristics are further qualified by the direction of travel of the insect; the highest accelerations tended to occur when the insect was at close range, but moving away from the source. Rather than manifesting a simple positive phototaxis, the trajectories were suggestive of disorientation. Based on the data and the complex behavioural response, mathematical models were developed that described ideal density distribution in calm air and light wind speed conditions. The models did not offer a physiological hypothesis regarding the behavioural changes, but rather were tools for quantification and prediction. Since the time that the system was developed, instrumentation, computers and software have advanced considerably, allowing much more to be achieved at a small fraction of the original cost. Nevertheless, the analytical tools remain useful for automated trajectory analysis of airborne insects.
Address School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester,Manchester M13 9PL,UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-4853 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29745349 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1895
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Author (up) Gaynor, K.M.; Hojnowski, C.E.; Carter, N.H.; Brashares, J.S.
Title The influence of human disturbance on wildlife nocturnality Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume 360 Issue 6394 Pages 1232-1235
Keywords
Abstract Rapid expansion of human activity has driven well-documented shifts in the spatial distribution of wildlife, but the cumulative effect of human disturbance on the temporal dynamics of animals has not been quantified. We examined anthropogenic effects on mammal diel activity patterns, conducting a meta-analysis of 76 studies of 62 species from six continents. Our global study revealed a strong effect of humans on daily patterns of wildlife activity. Animals increased their nocturnality by an average factor of 1.36 in response to human disturbance. This finding was consistent across continents, habitats, taxa, and human activities. As the global human footprint expands, temporal avoidance of humans may facilitate human-wildlife coexistence. However, such responses can result in marked shifts away from natural patterns of activity, with consequences for fitness, population persistence, community interactions, and evolution.
Address Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher AAAS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29903973 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1988
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