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Author (up) Grubisic, M.; Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Manfrin, A.; Hölker, F. openurl 
  Title Insect declines and agroecosystems: does light pollution matter? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Annals of Applied Biology Abbreviated Journal Ann. of Appl. Biol.  
  Volume 173 Issue 1 Pages 180-189  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Review  
  Abstract Drastic declines in insect populations, ‘Ecological Armageddon’, have recently gained increased attention in the scientific community, and are commonly considered to be the consequence of large‐scale factors such as land‐use changes, use of pesticides, climate change and habitat fragmentation. Artificial light at night (ALAN), a pervasive global change that strongly impacts insects, remains, however, infrequently recognised as a potential contributor to the observed declines. Here, we provide a summary of recent evidence of impacts of ALAN on insects and discuss how these impacts can drive declines in insect populations in light‐polluted areas. ALAN can increase overall environmental pressure on insect populations, and this is particularly important in agroecosystems where insect communities provide important ecosystem services (such as natural pest control, pollination, conservation of soil structure and fertility and nutrient cycling), and are already under considerable environmental pressure. We discuss how changes in insect populations driven by ALAN and ALAN itself may hinder these services to influence crop production and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Understanding the contribution of ALAN and other factors to the decline of insects is an important step towards mitigation and the recovery of the insect fauna in our landscapes. In future studies, the role of increased nocturnal illumination also needs to be examined as a possible causal factor of insect declines in the ongoing ‘Ecological Armageddon’, along with the more commonly examined factors. Given the large scale of agricultural land use and the potential of ALAN to indirectly and directly impact crop production and biodiversity, a better understanding of effects of ALAN in agroecosystems is urgently needed.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1939  
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Author (up) Grubisic, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Manfrin, A.; Monaghan, M.T.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A transition to white LED increases ecological impacts of nocturnal illumination on aquatic primary producers in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume 240 Issue Pages 630-638  
  Keywords Plants; Ecology  
  Abstract The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms. While effects of the shift to LED have been investigated in nocturnal animals, its impact on primary producers is unknown. We performed three field experiments in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch to assess the impacts of a transition from high-pressure sodium (HPS) to white LED illumination (color temperature 4000 K) on primary producers in periphyton. In all experiments, we compared biomass and pigment composition of periphyton grown under a natural light regime to that of periphyton exposed to nocturnal HPS or, consecutively, LED light of intensities commonly found in urban waters (approximately 20 lux). Periphyton was collected in time series (1–13 weeks). We found no effect of HPS light on periphyton biomass; however, following a shift to LED the biomass decreased up to 62%. Neither light source had a substantial effect on pigment composition. The contrasting effects of the two light sources on biomass may be explained by differences in their spectral composition, and in particular the blue content. Our results suggest that spectral composition of the light source plays a role in determining the impacts of ALAN on periphyton and that the ongoing transition to LED may increase the ecological impacts of artificial lighting on aquatic primary producers. Reduced biomass in the base of the food web can impact ecosystem functions such as productivity and food supply for higher trophic levels in nocturnally-lit ecosystems.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1900  
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Author (up) Guetté, A.; Godet, L.; Juigner, M.; Robin, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Worldwide increase in Artificial Light At Night around protected areas and within biodiversity hotspots Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 223 Issue Pages 97-103  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Ecology; Conservation  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) has several adverse impacts on biodiversity, and it has been recently used as a proxy to monitor human encroachment on landscapes at large spatial scales. The extent to which ALAN affects protected areas (PAs) and biodiversity hotspots (BHs) remains however untested at large spatial scales. We used this proxy to assess the spatial and temporal trends in the anthropization at a global scale within and around PAs and BHs. We found that ALAN is low and stable over time within PAs, but is the highest in a first outer belt (<25 km) around PAs, and tends to increase in a second outer belt (25–75 km). In the meantime, ALAN is higher within BHs than outside, and is even the highest and increasing over time in an inner belt, close to their periphery. Our results suggest that although PAs are creating safety zones in terms of ALAN, they tend to be more and more isolated from each other by a concentric human encroachment. In contrast, BHs are submitted to an increasing human pressure, especially in their inner periphery. Overall, we suggest integrating ALAN in large-scale conservation policies.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1890  
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Author (up) Gwiazdsinski, L.; Straw, W. url  doi
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  Title Nights and Mountains. Preliminary Explorations of a Double Frontier Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Revue de géographie alpine Abbreviated Journal rga  
  Volume 106 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Commentary; Darkness  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-1121 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1866  
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Author (up) Halfwerk, W.; Blaas, M.; Kramer, L.; Hijner, N.; Trillo, P.A.; Bernal, X.E.; Page, R.A.; Goutte, S.; Ryan, M.J.; Ellers, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Adaptive changes in sexual signalling in response to urbanization Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages 374-380  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Urbanization can cause species to adjust their sexual displays, because the effectiveness of mating signals is influenced by environmental conditions. Despite many examples that show that mating signals in urban conditions differ from those in rural conditions, we do not know whether these differences provide a combined reproductive and survival benefit to the urban phenotype. Here we show that male tungara frogs have increased the conspicuousness of their calls, which is under strong sexual and natural selection by signal receivers, as an adaptive response to city life. The urban phenotype consequently attracts more females than the forest phenotype, while avoiding the costs that are imposed by eavesdropping bats and midges, which we show are rare in urban areas. Finally, we show in a translocation experiment that urban frogs can reduce risk of predation and parasitism when moved to the forest, but that forest frogs do not increase their sexual attractiveness when moved to the city. Our findings thus reveal that urbanization can rapidly drive adaptive signal change via changes in both natural and sexual selection pressures.  
  Address Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30532046 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2136  
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