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Author Hiltunen, A. P., Kumpula, T., &Tykkyläinen, M.
Title Yövalaistuksen ja valopäästöjen alueellinen jakautuminen Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Geoinformatiikka Yhteiskunnassa Abbreviated Journal
Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Remotely-sensed night-time lights (NTL) reveal the occurrence of human development while excessive light emissions cause ecological impacts and may create human health hazards. The aim of this research is to find out the factors affecting the quantity of remotely-sensed NTLs in Finland at 2015. We also aim to unveil how much NTLs have changed in Finland from 1993 to 2012 and what is the share of NTLs for different land use types in Finland in 2015. Answers to these questions are achieved with satellite radiance data and data on spatial structure, multiple linear regression (MLR), and change-detection methods. National and regional MLR models were produced to explain NTL and to compare the suitability of this modelling approach in different regions. Radiance is explained by population density, industrial building density, and lit roads density. Surprisingly, the brightest areas in Finland seem to be in Närpiö, a rural area with low population density but where greenhouse farming is common. Based on change-detection, new light sources have emerged because of the expansion of mining and tourism industries.
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Language Finnish Summary Language Original Title
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Call Number (up) IDA @ intern @ Serial 2354
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Author Vaaja, M. T., Kurkela, M., Maksimainen, M., Virtanen, J., Kukko, A., Lehtola, V. V., Hyyppä, J., & Hyyppä, H.
Title MOBILE MAPPING OF NIGHT-TIME ROAD ENVIRONMENT LIGHTING CONDITIONS Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Photogrammetric Journal of Finland Abbreviated Journal
Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Lighting; Remote Sensing
Abstract The measurement of 3D geometry for road environments is one of the main applications of mobile mapping systems (MMS). We present mobile mapping applied to a night-time road environment. We integrate the measurement of luminances into a georeferenced 3D point cloud. The luminance measurement and the 3D point cloud acquired with an MMS are used in assessing road environment lighting conditions. Luminance (cd/m2) was measured with a luminance-calibrated panoramic camera system, and point cloud was produced by laser scanners. The relative orientation between the GNSS, IMU, camera, and laser scanner sensors was solved in order to

integrate the data sets into the same coordinate system. Hence, the georeferenced luminance values are transferable into geographic information systems (GIS). The method provides promising results for future road lighting assessment. In addition, this article demonstrates the night-time mobile mapping principle applied to a road section in Helsinki, Finland. Finally, we discuss the

future applications of mobile-mapped luminance point clouds.
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Call Number (up) IDA @ intern @ Serial 2650
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Author Stock, D. M.
Title LOCALIZED LIGHT SENSORY IN RELATION TO GRAZING ACTIVITY OF ECHINOMETRA MATHAEI Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract This paper offers insight on the regulation of nocturnal behavior in burrowing sea urchin Echinometra mathaei of the Pacific. While it is known E. mathaei maintains nocturnal hours of activity (primarily grazing, burrowing, and locomotion), it is unknown whether this pattern follows a circadian rhythm or responds to local conditions of darkness. Varying light treatments were tested to determine potential manipulation of active behavior and explore potential for habitat destruction. Light manipulation was used to determine the role light sensory plays in the regulation of normal behavior. First utilizing gradual manipulation and later utilizing sudden manipulation to differentiate response to light stimuli. It was determined that while E. mathaei maintains nocturnal

activity via localized light sensory, manipulation of latent hours could not be significantly reproduced. It was found that while light manipulation can be responsible for simulating hours of activity, light manipulation cannot replicate latent hours. Upon exploration of predator response capability in E. mathaei following manipulation, it was found that individuals exposed to prolonged periods of artificial light had slower predation response times than individuals acclimated to a regular pattern of light exposure. These findings connect potential habitat degradation via grazing behaviors of E. mathaei to anthropogenic activity in Mo’orea, French Polynesia.
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Call Number (up) IDA @ intern @ Serial 2653
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Author Beyer, R., Chhabra, E., Galdo, V., & Rama M.
Title Measuring Districts’ Monthly Economic Activity from Outer Space Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The World Bank Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Evening-hour luminosity observed using satellites is a good proxy for economic activity. The strengths of measuring economic activity using nightlight measurements include that the data capture informal activity, are available in near real-time, are cheap to obtain, and can be used to conduct very spatially granular analysis. This paper presents a measure of monthly economic activity at the district level based on cleaned Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite nightlight and rural population. The paper demonstrates that this new method can shed light on recent episodes in South Asia: first, the 2015 earthquake in Nepal; second, demonetization in India; and, third, violent conflict outbreaks in Afghanistan.
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Call Number (up) IDA @ intern @ Serial 2965
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Author Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya
Title Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing Abbreviated Journal
Volume 56 Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Sleep is essential for rest, repair, well-being, and survival of the patient. Sleep quality varies in critically ill patients and is measured by patient's satisfaction of the sleep experience, integrating aspects of sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, quantity of sleep and the refreshment upon awakening. Altered sleep is a common problem experienced by patients in critical care units. This alterations may lead to physiological and psychological dysfunctions that may affect recovery. Critically ill patients frequently experience poor sleep, characterized by frequent disruptions and loss of circadian rhythms. This study investigated factors influencing the quality of sleep among critically ill patients in hospitals in Western Kenya. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used to examine these factors. A total of 142 patients above 18 years who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and those transferred from the ICU to the general ward during the study period were conveniently selected for participation in the study. For triangulation, 10 nurses who worked in the ICU also participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from patients while a checklist was used to observe nursing interventions. Descriptive statistical techniques used were frequencies and percentages, while chi-square was used with the p-value set at 0.05 to test the association between factors and quality of sleep. The study results showed that frequent, nursing care activities 96.5% (n=137) noise from ventilator alarms 83.1% (n=118), feeling thirsty 57.7% (n= 82) and pain 52.8% (n=75) were among the major factors influencing the quality of sleep in ICU. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed patient factors significantly associated with quality sleep were age p=.006 and marital status p=.02, environmental factors significantly affecting sleep were presence of light at night with a p <0.0001 and noise from alarms p=.01. Physiological factors included feeling of thirst and hunger (p=0.03). This study recommends optimal use of analgesics and sedatives for pain management, adequate fluid replacement and hydration, noise reduction strategies, including minimizing monitor and ventilator alarms, reducing staff and telephone conversations and use of ear plugs for patients in ICU. Further, nurses should implement clustered procedures to reduce disruption of sleep among critically ill patients.
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Call Number (up) IDA @ intern @ Serial 2974
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