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Author Rybnikova, N.; Stevens, R.G.; Gregorio, D.I.; Samociuk, H.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Kernel density analysis reveals a halo pattern of breast cancer incidence in Connecticut Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Volume 26 Issue Pages (down) 143-151
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Breast cancer (BC) incidence rates in Connecticut are among the highest in the United States, and are unevenly distributed within the state. Our goal was to determine whether artificial light at night (ALAN) played a role. Using BC records obtained from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, we applied the double kernel density (DKD) estimator to produce a continuous relative risk surface of a disease throughout the State. A multi-variate analysis compared DKD and census track estimates with population density, fertility rate, percent of non-white population, population below poverty level, and ALAN levels. The analysis identified a “halo” geographic pattern of BC incidence, with the highest rates of the disease observed at distances 5-15 km from the state's major cities. The “halo” was of high-income communities, with high ALAN, located in suburban fringes of the state's main cities.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1877-5845 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1961
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Author Baddiley, C.
Title Light pollution modelling, and measurements at Malvern Hills AONB, of county conversion to blue rich LEDs Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 219 Issue Pages (down) 142-173
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The introduction of blue rich colour, Correlated-Colour-Temperature (CCT) 6000K road lighting could increase skyglow significantly compared with CCT 3000K types, if the blue content reaches the sky.

Highways England have a policy for lighting specification on motorways advised by the author's work. This is a categorised environmental impact point system of summed brightness as a function of angle from vertically down to the cut off angle; but with no CCT limitation.

Modelling was done for Malvern-Hills Area-of-Outstanding-Natural-Beauty (MHAONB), for the nighttime environmental impact of the LED replacement of Low-Pressure-Sodium throughout Herefordshire. The study was extended to include High-Pressure-Sodium and to LEDs at several CCTs, for the same Photopic ground illuminance.

Dark-Sky-Survey geographic location results for the MHAONB (2012) are described. Near-Zenith sky brightness photometry became continuous from 2016 at 2 minute intervals in all weathers, not just clear nights, with a networked calibrated Unihedron Lensed Sky Quality Meter (LSQM). Samples were also taken of all-sky camera images, corrected for vignetting and near-Zenith calibrated with the LSQM, to study weather effects, Milky Way contribution, and Herefordshire lighting conversion to blue-rich LEDs (2013-15), compared with the less converted Severn valley direction.

Time-plots and histogram analysis showed a small reduction in brightness (2012-2018), 0.1 mag.arcsec−2. Most variation is from increased sampling of distant cloud cover effects. Mist or low cloud on the horizon obscures light sources beyond reducing local skyglow, while high cloud reflects, increasing clear sky brightness. The Milky Way is critically 20% above background. Darkest periods near Zenith reach 21.1 mag.arcsec−2, to 21.2 after rain or surrounding low-cloud or poor-visibility. Clear-sky brightness decreases into early hours (∼0.03 mag.arcsec−2/hr); dimming effects were not seen.

The Zenith brightness is still set by distant cities, while towards the horizon, commercial and private uncontrolled non-directional LED lighting is increasing, negating the improvements in road lighting.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1914
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Author Schuler, L.D.; Schatz, R.; Berweger, C.D.
Title From global radiance to an increased local political awareness of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Science & Policy Abbreviated Journal Environmental Science & Policy
Volume 89 Issue Pages (down) 142-152
Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Animals
Abstract We present a novel transparent method to analyze measurements of the Suomi NPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite in night vision, into luminous intensity and luminance on the community level, with a special focus to address light planners and non-experts, and for the first time, to further address politicians, decision-makers and law-makers, and governmental agencies. We checked the propagated efficiency of road lighting and its impact on luminous flux, and identified a waste of light emissions in the largest city of Switzerland, Zurich. We looked at security (issues like criminal acts) and found no correlation with communities’ luminous intensity. We assessed road safety (accidents) against local luminance and found no evidence of darkness being more risky when the overall distribution of illuminance on roads is considered. We screened crayfish habitats in the Canton of Zurich against local illuminance and found clear evidence of preferred darkness for the living. Based on this finding, we propose an upper limit for light immissions in the crayfish habitats. These four analyses have been chosen to demonstrate the usefulness of Suomi NPP's coverage in combination with our approach. We could apply it to ecological, social and economical topics. We hope others will follow and we can draw more attention of governments to take action to reduce the light pollution on local levels, like Langnau am Albis of Switzerland has exemplified.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1462-9011 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1965
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Author Duriscoe, D.M.; Anderson, S.J.; Luginbuhl, C.B.; Baugh, K.E.
Title A simplified model of all-sky artificial sky glow derived from VIIRS Day/Night band data Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 214 Issue Pages (down) 133-145
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract We present a simplified method using geographic analysis tools to predict the average artificial luminance over the hemisphere of the night sky, expressed as a ratio to the natural condition. The VIIRS Day/Night Band upward radiance data from the Suomi NPP orbiting satellite was used for input to the model. The method is based upon a relation between sky glow brightness and the distance from the observer to the source of upward radiance. This relationship was developed using a Garstang radiative transfer model with Day/Night Band data as input, then refined and calibrated with ground-based all-sky V-band photometric data taken under cloudless and low atmospheric aerosol conditions. An excellent correlation was found between observed sky quality and the predicted values from the remotely sensed data. Thematic maps of large regions of the earth showing predicted artificial V-band sky brightness may be quickly generated with modest computing resources. We have found a fast and accurate method based on previous work to model all-sky quality. We provide limitations to this method. The proposed model meets requirements needed by decision makers and land managers of an easy to interpret and understand metric of sky quality.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1879
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Author Stathakis, D.; Baltas, P.
Title Seasonal population estimates based on night-time lights Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Computers, Environment and Urban Systems Abbreviated Journal Computers, Environment and Urban Systems
Volume 68 Issue Pages (down) 133-141
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The objective of this paper is to present a method for estimating seasonally specific ambient population counts. The central assumption is that the variation in observed night-lights is a valid proxy for ambient population. Island populations are used for validation, where it is possible to derive estimates of ambient population from national statistics. The method is then applied to the whole of Greece. The validation shows a strong correlation amongst night-lights derived estimates and the reference dataset. Based on the proposed method, national maps are produced showing the month when seasonality is in its peak, the peak value during that month and the overall length of the season, in terms of how many months exceed a certain threshold. Different seasonality patterns are revealed. An advantage of the proposed method, compared to other contemporary approaches, is that it is based on public domain, global data.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0198-9715 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2177
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