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Author Babadi, S.; Ramirez-Inguiez, R.; Boutaleb, T.; Mallick, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Producing uniform illumination within a rectangular area by using a nonimaging optic Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl. Opt.  
  Volume 57 Issue 31 Pages (down) 9357  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract This paper proposes a new design method to create a novel optical element to generate uniform illumination within a rectangular area. Based on this model, an illuminated area is irradiated by two sets of rays; the first one irradiates the target plane after refraction from the top section of the lens, and the second one irradiates from the reflection at the side profile of the lens and then from refraction at the top part of the lens. The results show that a uniformity of over 90% can be achieved.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1559-128X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2046  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Voigt, C.C.; Rehnig, K.; Lindecke, O.; Petersons, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 8 Issue 18 Pages (down) 9353-9361  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The replacement of conventional lighting with energy-saving light emitting diodes (LED) is a worldwide trend, yet its consequences for animals and ecosystems are poorly understood. Strictly nocturnal animals such as bats are particularly sensitive to artificial light at night (ALAN). Past studies have shown that bats, in general, respond to ALAN according to the emitted light color and that migratory bats, in particular, exhibit phototaxis in response to green light. As red and white light is frequently used in outdoor lighting, we asked how migratory bats respond to these wavelength spectra. At a major migration corridor, we recorded the presence of migrating bats based on ultrasonic recorders during 10-min light-on/light-off intervals to red or warm-white LED, interspersed with dark controls. When the red LED was switched on, we observed an increase in flight activity for Pipistrellus pygmaeus and a trend for a higher activity for Pipistrellus nathusii. As the higher flight activity of bats was not associated with increased feeding, we rule out the possibility that bats foraged at the red LED light. Instead, bats may have flown toward the red LED light source. When exposed to warm-white LED, general flight activity at the light source did not increase, yet we observed an increased foraging activity directly at the light source compared to the dark control. Our findings highlight a response of migratory bats toward LED light that was dependent on light color. The most parsimonious explanation for the response to red LED is phototaxis and for the response to warm-white LED foraging. Our findings call for caution in the application of red aviation lighting, particularly at wind turbines, as this light color might attract bats, leading eventually to an increased collision risk of migratory bats at wind turbines.  
  Address Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies Jelgava Latvia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30377506; PMCID:PMC6194273 Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2074  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kehoe, R.C.; Cruse, D.; Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J.; van Veen, F.J.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shifting daylength regimes associated with range shifts alter aphid-parasitoid community dynamics Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 8 Issue 17 Pages (down) 8761-8769  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract With climate change leading to poleward range expansion of species, populations are exposed to new daylength regimes along latitudinal gradients. Daylength is a major factor affecting insect life cycles and activity patterns, so a range shift leading to new daylength regimes is likely to affect population dynamics and species interactions; however, the impact of daylength in isolation on ecological communities has not been studied so far. Here, we tested for the direct and indirect effects of two different daylengths on the dynamics of experimental multitrophic insect communities. We compared the community dynamics under “southern” summer conditions of 14.5-hr daylight to “northern” summer conditions of 22-hr daylight. We show that food web dynamics indeed respond to daylength with one aphid species (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reaching much lower population sizes at the northern daylength regime compared to under southern conditions. In contrast, in the same communities, another aphid species (Megoura viciae) reached higher population densities under northern conditions. This effect at the aphid level was driven by an indirect effect of daylength causing a change in competitive interaction strengths, with the different aphid species being more competitive at different daylength regimes. Additionally, increasing daylength also increased growth rates in M. viciae making it more competitive under summer long days. As such, the shift in daylength affected aphid population sizes by both direct and indirect effects, propagating through species interactions. However, contrary to expectations, parasitoids were not affected by daylength. Our results demonstrate that range expansion of whole communities due to climate change can indeed change interaction strengths between species within ecological communities with consequences for community dynamics. This study provides the first evidence of daylength affecting community dynamics, which could not be predicted from studying single species separately.  
  Address College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Penryn Cornwall UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30271543; PMCID:PMC6157684 Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2100  
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Author Dunster, G.P.; de la Iglesia, L.; Ben-Hamo, M.; Nave, C.; Fleischer, J.G.; Panda, S.; de la Iglesia, H.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleepmore in Seattle: Later school start times are associated with more sleep and better performance in high school students Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci. Adv.  
  Volume 4 Issue 12 Pages (down) eaau6200  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Most teenagers are chronically sleep deprived. One strategy proposed to lengthen adolescent sleep is to delay secondary school start times. This would allow students to wake up later without shifting their bedtime, which is biologically determined by the circadian clock, resulting in a net increase in sleep. So far, there is no objective quantitative data showing that a single intervention such as delaying the school start time significantly increases daily sleep. The Seattle School District delayed the secondary school start time by nearly an hour. We carried out a pre-/post-research study and show that there was an increase in the daily median sleep duration of 34 min, associated with a 4.5% increase in the median grades of the students and an improvement in attendance.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2131  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mard, J.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Mazzoleni, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime light data reveal how flood protection shapes human proximity to rivers Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages (down) eaar5779  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract To understand the spatiotemporal changes of flood risk, we need to determine the way in which humans adapt and respond to flood events. One adaptation option consists of resettling away from flood-prone areas to prevent or reduce future losses. We use satellite nighttime light data to discern the relationship between long-term changes in human proximity to rivers and the occurrence of catastrophic flood events. Moreover, we explore how these relationships are influenced by different levels of structural flood protection. We found that societies with low protection levels tend to resettle further away from the river after damaging flood events. Conversely, societies with high protection levels show no significant changes in human proximity to rivers. Instead, such societies continue to rely heavily on structural measures, reinforcing flood protection and quickly resettling in flood-prone areas after a flooding event. Our work reveals interesting aspects of human adaptation to flood risk and offers key insights for comparing different risk reduction strategies. In addition, this study provides a framework that can be used to further investigate human response to floods, which is relevant as urbanization of floodplains continues and puts more people and economic assets at risk.  
  Address IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30140738; PMCID:PMC6105301 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1989  
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