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Author Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J.
Title How ecological communities respond to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages (down) 394-400
Keywords Ecology
Abstract Many ecosystems worldwide are exposed to artificial light at night (ALAN), from streetlights and other sources, and a wide range of organisms has been shown to respond to this anthropogenic pressure. This raises concerns about the consequences for major ecosystem functions and their stability. However, there is limited understanding of how whole ecological communities respond to ALAN, and this cannot be gained simply by making predictions from observed single species physiological, behavioral, or ecological responses. Research needs to include an important building block of ecological communities, namely the interactions between species that drive ecological and evolutionary processes in ecosystems. Here, we summarize current knowledge about community responses to ALAN and illustrate different pathways and their impact on ecosystem functioning and stability. We discuss that documentation of the impact of ALAN on species interaction networks and trait distributions provides useful tools to link changes in community structure to ecosystem functions. Finally, we suggest several approaches to advance research that will link the diverse impact of ALAN to changes in ecosystems.
Address Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin, Germany
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29656458 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1857
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Author S Fotios, J Uttley
Title Illuminance required to detect a pavement obstacle of critical size Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 50 Issue Pages (down) 390-404
Keywords Vision; Lighting
Abstract This paper investigates the illuminance needed to detect trip hazards for pedestrians walking after dark. In previous work, it was assumed that the critical obstacle height is 25 mm: further review of accident data and foot clearance data suggests instead that 10 mm is the critical height. Eye tracking records suggest a tendency for obstacles to be detected approximately 3.4 m ahead. Interpretation of obstacle detection data suggests horizontal photopic illuminances of up to 0.9 lux are required for peripheral detection of a 10 mm obstacle 3.4 m ahead, according to the scotopic/photopic ratio of the lighting and the age of the observer.
Address
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1765
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Author Mortazavi, S.A.R., Parhoodeh, S., Hosseini, M.A., Arabi, H., Malakooti, H., Nematollahi, S., Mortazavi, G., Darvish, L., Mortazavi, S.M.J.
Title Blocking Short-Wavelength Component of the Visible Light Emitted by Smartphones’ Screens Improves Human Sleep Quality Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages (down) 375-380
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Background: It has been shown that short-wavelength blue component of the visible light spectrum can alter the circadian rhythm and suppress the level of melatonin hormone. The short-wavelength light emitted by smartphones’ screens can affect the sleep quality of the people who use these devices at night through suppression of melatonin.

Objectives: In this study, we examined the effects of covering the screens of smartphones with different filters (changing the effective wavelength of the light) on sleep delay time in 43 healthy students.

Materials and Methods: Volunteer students were asked to go to bed at 23:00 and to use their mobile phones in bed for watching a natural life documentary movie for 60 minutes. No filter was used for one night while amber and blue filters were used for other 2 nights. Photospectrometry method was used to determine the output spectrum of the light passing through the filters used for covering the screens of the mobile phones. The order for utilizing amber or blue filters or using no filter was selected randomly. After 1 hour, the participants were asked to record their sleep delay time measured by a modified form of sleep time record sheet.

Results: The mean sleep delay time for the “no-filter” night was 20.84±9.15 minutes, while the sleep delay times for the nights with amber and blue filters were 15.26±1.04 and 26.33±1.59 minutes, respectively.

Conclusion: The findings obtained in this study support this hypothesis that blue light possibly suppresses the secretion of melatonin more than the longer wavelengths of the visible light spectrum. Using amber filter in this study significantly improved the sleep quality. Altogether, these findings lead us to this conclusion that blocking the short-wavelength component of the light emitted by smartphones’ screens improves human sleep.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2077
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Author Lim, H.; Ngarambe, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, G.
Title The Reality of Light Pollution: A Field Survey for the Determination of Lighting Environmental Management Zones in South Korea Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages (down) 374
Keywords Planning; Regulation; Energy
Abstract Light pollution has been receiving increased attention worldwide. Scientific research has provided convincing evidence that ties artificial lighting to health-related issues. Consequently, the involved parties are now leaned towards the implementation of regulations to help limit the use of artificial lighting. Many countries, together with international organizations, have embarked on setting standards and regulations aimed at halting the excessive and improper usage of artificial lighting, there-by eradicating light pollution and its effects. In Korea, outdoor lighting at night is a common phenomenon. Moreover, as the economic development grows even further, the use of artificial lighting is expected to increase making Korea vulnerable to the adverse effects of artificial lighting. In this study, we discuss the issue of light pollution based on field measurements conducted in Seoul, South Korea. The measurements were undertaken to broaden the understanding and assessment of light pollution. During the investigation, we noted that the most severe forms of light pollution were found in developed urban and densely commercialized areas. Currently, there are ongoing light pollution measurement projects around the entire Korea. It would be informative to see how the rest of South Korea compares to the Capital, Seoul in terms of light pollution levels.
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ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1808
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Author Halfwerk, W.; Blaas, M.; Kramer, L.; Hijner, N.; Trillo, P.A.; Bernal, X.E.; Page, R.A.; Goutte, S.; Ryan, M.J.; Ellers, J.
Title Adaptive changes in sexual signalling in response to urbanization Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 3 Issue Pages (down) 374-380
Keywords Animals
Abstract Urbanization can cause species to adjust their sexual displays, because the effectiveness of mating signals is influenced by environmental conditions. Despite many examples that show that mating signals in urban conditions differ from those in rural conditions, we do not know whether these differences provide a combined reproductive and survival benefit to the urban phenotype. Here we show that male tungara frogs have increased the conspicuousness of their calls, which is under strong sexual and natural selection by signal receivers, as an adaptive response to city life. The urban phenotype consequently attracts more females than the forest phenotype, while avoiding the costs that are imposed by eavesdropping bats and midges, which we show are rare in urban areas. Finally, we show in a translocation experiment that urban frogs can reduce risk of predation and parasitism when moved to the forest, but that forest frogs do not increase their sexual attractiveness when moved to the city. Our findings thus reveal that urbanization can rapidly drive adaptive signal change via changes in both natural and sexual selection pressures.
Address Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30532046 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2136
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