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Author Price, J.T.; Drye, B.; Domangue, R.J.; Paladino, F.V. url  openurl
  Title Exploring The Role of Artificial Lighting in Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) Nest-Site Selection and Hatchling Disorientation Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Herpetological Conservation and Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages (down) 415-422  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Beachfront artificial lighting can deter nesting sea turtles and disrupt the seaward orientation of hatchlings following their emergence from the nest. We investigated the effects of variable artificial lighting along the 17.5-km beachfront of St. George Island, Florida, USA on both nesting and hatchling Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta). We hypothesized that illumination affects nest-site selection and hatchling orientation of Loggerhead Turtles. We predicted that zones with higher artificial luminance levels would have a reduced number of nests laid by Loggerhead Turtles, as well as an increased hatchling disorientation rate. We divided the beachfront into zones 500 m in length and recorded nighttime luminance measurements with a photometer throughout the 2015 nesting season. The 2015 luminance values were analyzed together with Loggerhead Turtle nesting data from the 2015 season, as well as related to a longer-term dataset from 2011–2015. We found a negative relationship between nestsite selection and the intensity of artificial luminance, such that the brighter zones along the beachfront had fewer nests. Within this relationship, we found that nest density was significantly lower above a beachfront luminance value of ~800 μcd/m2. Finally, we found that hatchling disorientations occurred more frequently in zones with greater luminance. While many factors can affect nesting and hatchling Loggerhead behavior, our results suggest that variable intensities of artificial lighting at a nesting site may lead to a spatially clumped arrangement of nests and hatchling disorientations. These results can help improve the conservation and protection of nesting habitat as they further our understanding of the effects of artificial beachfront lighting on Loggerhead Turtles.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2106  
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Author Do, Q.-T.; Shapiro, J.N.; Elvidge, C.D.; Abdel-Jelil, M.; Ahn, D.P.; Baugh, K.; Hansen-Lewis, J.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Terrorism, geopolitics, and oil security: Using remote sensing to estimate oil production of the Islamic State Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energy Research & Social Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Research & Social Science  
  Volume 44 Issue Pages (down) 411-418  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics  
  Abstract As the world’s most traded commodity, oil production is typically well monitored and analyzed. It also has established links to geopolitics, international relations, and security. Despite this attention, the illicit production, refining, and trade of oil and derivative products occur all over the world and provide significant revenues outside of the oversight and regulation of governments. A prominent manifestation of this phenomenon is how terrorist and insurgent organizations—including the Islamic State group, also known as ISIL/ISIS or Daesh—use oil as a revenue source. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in production can help determine the scale of operations, technical capacity, and revenue streams. This information, in turn, can inform both security and reconstruction strategies. To this end, we use satellite multi-spectral imaging and ground-truth pre-war output data to effectively construct a real-time census of oil production in areas controlled by the ISIL terrorist group. More broadly, remotely measuring the activity of extractive industries in conflict-affected areas without reliable administrative data can support a broad range of public policy and decisions and military operations.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2214-6296 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1864  
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Author Aulsebrook, A.E.; Jones, T.M.; Mulder, R.A.; Lesku, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impacts of artificial light at night on sleep: A review and prospectus Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages (down) 409-418  
  Keywords Animals; Human Activities; Review  
  Abstract Natural cycles of light and darkness govern the timing of most aspects of animal behavior and physiology. Artificial light at night (ALAN)-a recent and pervasive form of pollution-can mask natural photoperiodic cues and interfere with biological rhythms. One such rhythm vulnerable to perturbation is the sleep-wake cycle. ALAN may greatly influence sleep in humans and wildlife, particularly in animals that sleep predominantly at night. There has been some recent evidence for impacts of ALAN on sleep, but critical questions remain. Some of these can be addressed by adopting approaches already entrenched in sleep research. In this paper, we review the current evidence for impacts of ALAN on sleep, highlight gaps in our understanding, and suggest opportunities for future research.  
  Address La Trobe University, School of Life Sciences, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29869374 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1933  
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Author Russart, K.L.G.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night alters behavior in laboratory and wild animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages (down) 401-408  
  Keywords Animals; Review  
  Abstract Life has evolved to internalize and depend upon the daily and seasonal light cycles to synchronize physiology and behavior with environmental conditions. The nightscape has been vastly changed in response to the use of artificial lighting. Wildlife is now often exposed to direct lighting via streetlights or indirect lighting via sky glow at night. Because many activities rely on daily and seasonal light cues, the effects of artificial light at night could be extensive, but remain largely unknown. Laboratory studies suggest exposure to light at night can alter typical timing of daily locomotor activity and shift the timing of foraging/food intake to the daytime in nocturnal rodents. Additionally, nocturnal rodents decrease anxiety-like behaviors (i.e., spend more time in the open and increase rearing up) in response to even dim light at night. These are all likely maladaptive responses in the wild. Photoperiodic animals rely on seasonal changes in day length as a cue to evoke physiological and behavioral modifications to anticipate favorable and unfavorable conditions for survival and reproduction. Light at night can mask detection of short days, inappropriately signal long days, and thus desynchronize seasonal reproductive activities. We review laboratory and the sparse field studies that address the effects of exposure to artificial light at night to propose that exposure to light at night disrupts circadian and seasonal behavior in wildlife, which potentially decreases individual fitness and modifies ecosystems.  
  Address Behavioral Medicine and Psychiatry, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29806740 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1928  
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Author Galadí-Enríquez, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Beyond CCT: The spectral index system as a tool for the objective, quantitative characterization of lamps Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT  
  Volume 206 Issue Pages (down) 399-408  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract Correlated color temperature (CCT) is a semi-quantitative system that roughly describes the spectra of lamps. This parameter gives the temperature (measured in kelvins) of the black body that would show the hue more similar to that of the light emitted by the lamp. Modern lamps for indoor and outdoor lighting display many spectral energy distributions, most of them extremely different to those of black bodies, what makes CCT to be far from a perfect descriptor from the physical point of view. The spectral index system presented in this work provides an accurate, objective, quantitative procedure to characterize the spectral properties of lamps, with just a few numbers. The system is an adaptation to lighting technology of the classical procedures of multi-band astronomical photometry with wide and intermediate-band filters. We describe the basic concepts and we apply the system to a representative set of lamps of many kinds. The results lead to interesting, sometimes surprising conclusions. The spectral index system is extremely easy to implement from the spectral data that are routinely measured at laboratories. Thus, including this kind of computations in the standard protocols for the certification of lamps will be really straightforward, and will enrich the technical description of lighting devices.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1835  
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