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Author Malik, N.; Raj, A.; Dhasmana, R.; Bahadur, H.
Title Effect of Late Night Studying and Excessive Use of Video Display Terminals on the Ocular Health of Medical Undergraduate Students in A Tertiary Care Hospital Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Exp Ophthalmol
Volume 09 Issue 06 Pages (up)
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of late night study and excessive use of smart phones on the ocular health of medical undergraduate students.

Design: An observational and cross-sectional study.

Participants: Two hundred and fifty nine normal and healthy M.B.B.S students of age 18-25 y were included in the study over a period of two months.

Methods: All the volunteers underwent an interview in form of a questionnaire. A complete ophthalmic examination was done including snellen visual acuity assessment, anterior segment examination with slit lamp, posterior segment with direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy; Schirmer’s test and tear film break up time.

Results: A total of 259 subjects were included in the study and maximum subjects 160 (61.8%) were females. According to age, the students were divided in two groups as I and II with age of 17-20 y and 21-23 y respectively. Maximum 195 (75.3%) students belonged to group I. Maximum subjects 245 (94.5%) were using only smartphones and 239 (92.27%) subjects were using smartphones for more than 2 y. The maximum 136 (52.51%) students studied at night with maximum using tube light 112 (43.24%). A significant association was seen between the digital device used and age of the subject (p value=0.01). Number of symptoms experienced by the students showed significant relationship with the number of hours of smartphone usage (p value=0.02). Source of light in which the students studied at night was significantly associated with the number of symptoms experienced (p value=0.03). An association between usage of smartphones (hours) showed significant relationship with slit lamp examination (tear debri) and Schirmer’s (less than 15 mm) with p value of 0.03, 0.05 respectively.

Conclusion: Source of light used to study at night and number of hours of use of devices shows relationship with symptoms. Smart phone users showed computer-related eye problems in more than half of the subjects.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2155-9570 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2197
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Author Hüppop, O.; Ciach, M.; Diehl, R.; Reynolds, D.R.; Stepanian, P.M.; Menz, M.H.M.
Title Perspectives and challenges for the use of radar in biological conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecography Abbreviated Journal Ecography
Volume in press Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Animals; Review
Abstract Radar is at the forefront for the study of broad‐scale aerial movements of birds, bats and insects and related issues in biological conservation. Radar techniques are especially useful for investigating species which fly at high altitudes, in darkness, or which are too small for applying electronic tags. Here, we present an overview of radar applications in biological conservation and highlight its future possibilities. Depending on the type of radar, information can be gathered on local‐ to continental‐scale movements of airborne organisms and their behaviour. Such data can quantify flyway usage, biomass and nutrient transport (bioflow), population sizes, dynamics and distributions, times and dimensions of movements, areas and times of mass emergence and swarming, habitat use and activity ranges. Radar also captures behavioural responses to anthropogenic disturbances, artificial light and man‐made structures. Weather surveillance and other long‐range radar networks allow spatially broad overviews of important stopover areas, songbird mass roosts and emergences from bat caves. Mobile radars, including repurposed marine radars and commercially dedicated ‘bird radars’, offer the ability to track and monitor the local movements of individuals or groups of flying animals. Harmonic radar techniques have been used for tracking short‐range movements of insects and other small animals of conservation interest. However, a major challenge in aeroecology is determining the taxonomic identity of the targets, which often requires ancillary data obtained from other methods. Radar data have become a global source of information on ecosystem structure, composition, services and function and will play an increasing role in the monitoring and conservation of flying animals and threatened habitats worldwide.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0906-7590 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2204
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Author Wallace, H. D.
Title Electric Lighting Policy in the Federal Government, 1880-2016 Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords History; Policy; Lighting
Abstract Federal policies have targeted electric lighting since the 1880s with varying success. This dissertation examines the history of those policies to understand policy makers’ intent and how their decisions affected the course of events. This qualitative study poses three research questions: How have changes in lamp efficacy affected policy development? How and why have federal policies targeted electric lighting? How have private sector actors adapted public policy to further their own goals? The analysis uses an interdisciplinary approach taking advantage of overlapping methodologies drawn from policy and political sciences, economics, and the history of technology. The concepts of path dependency, context, and actor networks are especially important. Adoption of electric lighting spurred the construction of complex and capital intensive infrastructures now considered indispensable, and lighting always consumed a significant fraction of US electric power. Engineers and scientists created many lamps over the decades, in part to meet a growing demand for energy efficient products. Invention and diffusion of those lamps occurred amid changing standards and definitions of efficiency, shifting relations between network actors, and the development of path dependencies that constrained efforts to affect change. Federal actors typically used lighting policy to conserve resources, promote national security, or to symbolically emphasize the onset of a national crisis. The study shows that after an initial introductory phase, lighting-specific policies developed during two distinct periods. The earlier period consisted of intermittent, crisis-driven federal interventions of mixed success. The later period featured a sustained engagement between public and private sectors wherein incremental adjustments achieved policy goals. A time of transition occurred between the two main periods during which technical, economic, and political contexts changed, while several core social values remained constant. In both early and later periods, private sector actors used policy opportunities to further commercial goals, a practice that public sector actors in the later period used to promote policy acceptance. Recently enacted energy standards removing ordinary incandescent lamps in favor of high efficiency lamps mark the end of the later period. Apparent success means that policy makers should reconsider how they use lighting to achieve future goals.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher University of Maryland Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2210
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Author Palmer, M.; Gibbons, R.; Bhagavathula, R.; Holshouser, D.
Title Roadway Lighting’s Impact on Altering Soybean Growth – Volume 2: LED versus HPS Color Spectral Impact Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Technical Report Abbreviated Journal
Volume FHWA-ICT-18-009 Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Plants
Abstract The impact of roadway lighting on soybean plant growth and development, was measured in situ at three locations in the state of Illinois. These locations were situated in close proximity of each other for the purpose of evaluating whether there was a difference in the soy response to HPS roadway lighting, versus soy lit by a specific model of 4,000K LED roadway lighting. The plant data collection included the reproductive-stage, the plant moisture content, and the dried seed weight after harvest. The impact of the type of roadway lighting on the reproduction stage and normalized yield was within the modeling confidence limits at a level of 90%. Modifications are recommended to the specification for roadway lighting trespass. This will minimize the impact on soybean plants based on the two roadway luminaire designs included in this study.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Illinois Center for Transportation/Illinois Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0197-9191 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2264
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K. M. & Xavia, K.
Title An overview of the cognitive and biological effects of city nighttime illumination including a London case study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Centre for Conscious Design Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Current scientific research demonstrates how critical the effects of city nighttime illumination are upon cognitive and biological health1 – which needs to be adequately acknowledged, understood and addressed by conscious cities and the plans they develop. Until recent decades, the design of nighttime lighting was determined mostly by electrical engineers who often applied technical standards to meet the requirements of vehicle-focused cities. Unfortunately, consideration of pedestrians and their visual needs to navigate throughout urbanscapes at night were ignored, and so too, was the impact that artificial lighting might have on them, and the environment. Today, the majority of urban city lighting has been installed without full awareness of its impact, and as a result, artificial light at night (ALAN) and light pollution have become an obvious public nuisance, a health risk and an environmental burden2,3. While poor lighting has its drawbacks, a lack of lighting can have many positive aspects, and urban settings can benefit from protecting, preserving and promoting natural darkness. We present two recent planning and design initiatives of London, in the UK, where the quality of light and value of darkness were not given the degree of attention and consideration they deserve. This paper has particular relevance for urban policy makers, city planners, architects, designers, consultants and researchers as it explores the various problems caused by the obvious lack of responsible nighttime illumination.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2296
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