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Author Eriksen, A.; Wabakken, P.
Title Activity patterns at the Arctic Circle: nocturnal eagle owls and interspecific interactions during continuous midsummer daylight Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol
Volume 49 Issue 7 Pages e01781
Keywords Animals
Abstract Circadian rhythms result from adaptations to biotic and abiotic environmental conditions that cycle through the day, such as light, temperature, or temporal overlap between interacting species. At high latitudes, close to or beyond the polar circles, uninterrupted midsummer daylight may pose a challenge to the circadian rhythms of otherwise nocturnal species, such as eagle owls Bubo bubo. By non‐invasive field methods, we studied eagle owl activity in light of their interactions with their main prey the water vole Arvicola amphibius, and their competitor the white‐tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla during continuous midsummer daylight on open, treeless islands in coastal Northern Norway. We evaluated circadian rhythms, temporal overlap, exposure, and spatial distribution. The owls maintained a nocturnal activity pattern, possibly because slightly dimmer light around midnight offered favourable hunting conditions. The eagles were active throughout the 24‐hour period as opposed to the strictly diurnal rhythm reported elsewhere, thus increasing temporal overlap and the potential for interference competition between the two avian predators. This may indicate an asymmetry, with the owls facing the highest cost of interference competition. The presence of eagles combined with constant daylight in this open landscape may make the owls vulnerable to interspecific aggression, and contrary to the available literature, eagle owls rarely exposed themselves visually during territorial calls, possibly to avoid detection by eagles. We found indications of spatial segregation between owls and eagles reflecting differences in main prey, possibly in combination with habitat‐mediated avoidance. Eagle owl vocal activity peaked in the evening before a nocturnal peak in visual observations, when owls were active hunting, consistent with the hypothesis of a dusk chorus in nocturnal bird species. The owls may have had to trade‐off between calling and foraging during the few hours around midnight when slightly dimmer light reduced the detection risk while also providing better hunting conditions.
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ISSN (down) 0908-8857 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1881
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Author Holveck, M.-J.; Grégoire, A.; Doutrelant, C.; Lambrechts, M.M.
Title Nest height is affected by lamppost lighting proximity in addition to nestbox size in urban great tits Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Both natural and artificial light have proximate influences on many aspects of avian biology, physiology and behaviour. To date artificial light at night is mostly considered as being a nuisance disrupting for instance sleep and reproduction of diurnal species. Here, we investigate if lamppost night lighting affects cavity‐nesting bird species inside their breeding cavity. Nest height in secondary cavity‐nesting species is the result of trade‐offs between several selective forces. Predation is the prevailing force leading birds to build thin nests to increase the distance towards the entrance hole. A thin nest may also limit artificial light exposure at night. Yet, a minimum level of daylight inside nesting cavities is necessary for adequate visual communication and/or offspring development. Against this background, we hypothesised that avian nest‐building behaviour varies in response to a change in night lighting. We monitored nest height of urban great tits (Parus major) during six years and found that it varied with artificial light proximity. The birds built thinner nests inside nestboxes of various sizes in response to increasing lamppost night light availability at the nest. In large nestboxes, the nests were also thinner when a lamppost was present in the territory. Whether this relationship between artificial night lighting and nest height reflects a positive or negative effect of urbanisation is discussed in the light of recent experimental studies conducted in rural populations by other research groups.
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ISSN (down) 0908-8857 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2062
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Author Hüppop, O.; Ciach, M.; Diehl, R.; Reynolds, D.R.; Stepanian, P.M.; Menz, M.H.M.
Title Perspectives and challenges for the use of radar in biological conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecography Abbreviated Journal Ecography
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Review
Abstract Radar is at the forefront for the study of broad‐scale aerial movements of birds, bats and insects and related issues in biological conservation. Radar techniques are especially useful for investigating species which fly at high altitudes, in darkness, or which are too small for applying electronic tags. Here, we present an overview of radar applications in biological conservation and highlight its future possibilities. Depending on the type of radar, information can be gathered on local‐ to continental‐scale movements of airborne organisms and their behaviour. Such data can quantify flyway usage, biomass and nutrient transport (bioflow), population sizes, dynamics and distributions, times and dimensions of movements, areas and times of mass emergence and swarming, habitat use and activity ranges. Radar also captures behavioural responses to anthropogenic disturbances, artificial light and man‐made structures. Weather surveillance and other long‐range radar networks allow spatially broad overviews of important stopover areas, songbird mass roosts and emergences from bat caves. Mobile radars, including repurposed marine radars and commercially dedicated ‘bird radars’, offer the ability to track and monitor the local movements of individuals or groups of flying animals. Harmonic radar techniques have been used for tracking short‐range movements of insects and other small animals of conservation interest. However, a major challenge in aeroecology is determining the taxonomic identity of the targets, which often requires ancillary data obtained from other methods. Radar data have become a global source of information on ecosystem structure, composition, services and function and will play an increasing role in the monitoring and conservation of flying animals and threatened habitats worldwide.
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ISSN (down) 0906-7590 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2204
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Author Bowne, D.R.; Cosentino, B.J.; Anderson, L.J.; Bloch, C.P.; Cooke, S.; Crumrine, P.W.; Dallas, J.; Doran, A.; Dosch, J.J.; Druckenbrod, D.L.; Durtsche, R.D.; Garneau, D.; Genet, K.S.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Kish, P.A.; Kolozsvary, M.B.; Kuserk, F.T.; Lindquist, E.S.; Mankiewicz, C.; March, J.G.; Muir, T.J.; Murray, K.G.; Santulli, M.N.; Sicignano, F.J.; Smallwood, P.D.; Urban, R.A.; Winnett-Murray, K.; Zimmermann, C.R.
Title Effects of urbanization on the population structure of freshwater turtles across the United States Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol
Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 1150-1161
Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing
Abstract Landscape-scale alterations that accompany urbanization may negatively affect the population structure of wildlife species such as freshwater turtles. Changes to nesting sites and higher mortality rates due to vehicular collisions and increased predator populations may particularly affect immature turtles and mature female turtles. We hypothesized that the proportions of adult female and immature turtles in a population will negatively correlate with landscape urbanization. As a collaborative effort of the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN), we sampled freshwater turtle populations in 11 states across the central and eastern United States. Contrary to expectations, we found a significant positive relationship between proportions of mature female painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and urbanization. We did not detect a relationship between urbanization and proportions of immature turtles. Urbanization may alter the thermal environment of nesting sites such that more females are produced as urbanization increases. Our approach of creating a collaborative network of scientists and students at undergraduate institutions proved valuable in terms of testing our hypothesis over a large spatial scale while also allowing students to gain hands-on experience in conservation science. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Biology, Rogers State University, 1701 W. Will Rogers Boulevard, Claremore, OK 74017, U.S.A
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN (down) 0888-8892 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29781169 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1920
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Author Ostrin, L.A.
Title Ocular and systemic melatonin and the influence of light exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Clinical & Experimental Optometry Abbreviated Journal Clin Exp Optom
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Vision; Review; Human Health
Abstract Melatonin is a neurohormone known to modulate a wide range of circadian functions, including sleep. The synthesis and release of melatonin from the pineal gland is heavily influenced by light stimulation of the retina, particularly through the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Melatonin is also synthesised within the eye, although to a much lesser extent than in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts directly on ocular structures to mediate a variety of diurnal rhythms and physiological processes within the eye. The interactions between melatonin, the eye, and visual function have been the subject of a considerable body of recent research. This review is intended to provide a broad introduction for eye-care practitioners and researchers to the topic of melatonin and the eye. The first half of the review describes the anatomy and physiology of melatonin production: how visual inputs affect the pineal production of melatonin; how melatonin is involved in a variety of diurnal rhythms within the eye, including photoreceptor disc shedding, neuronal sensitivity, and intraocular pressure control; and melatonin production and physiological roles in retina, ciliary body, lens and cornea. The second half of the review describes clinical implications of light/melatonin interactions. These include light exposure and photoreceptor contributions in melatonin suppression, leading to consideration of how blue blockers, cataract, and light therapy might affect sleep and mood in patients. Additionally, the interactions between melatonin, sleep and refractive error development are discussed. A better understanding of environmental factors that affect melatonin and subsequent effects on physiological processes will allow clinicians to develop treatments and recommend modifiable behaviours to improve sleep, increase daytime alertness, and regulate ocular and systemic processes related to melatonin.
Address University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston, Texas, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN (down) 0816-4622 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30074278 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1986
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