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Author Czaczkes, T.J.; Bastidas-Urrutia, A.M.; Ghislandi, P.; Tuni, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reduced light avoidance in spiders from populations in light-polluted urban environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Die Naturwissenschaften Abbreviated Journal Naturwissenschaften  
  Volume 105 Issue 11-12 Pages 64  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Increased urbanisation is leading to a rise in light pollution. Light pollution can disrupt the behaviour and physiology of animals resulting in increased mortality. However, animals may also benefit from artificial light sources, as these may aggregate prey or signal suitable environments. For example, spiders are commonly seen congregating around artificial light sources. Changes in selective pressures engendered by urban environments are driving changes in urban organisms, driving better adaptation to these environments. Here, we ask whether urban populations of the synanthropic spider Steatoda triangulosa show different responses to light compared to rural populations. Egg-sacs from urban and rural populations were collected and incubated in a common garden setting, and the emerging spiderlings tested for light preference. While rural spiderlings avoided light (37% built webs in the light), urban spiderlings were indifferent to it (49% built webs in the light). Reduced light avoidance may benefit spiders through increased prey capture, increased movement into suitable habitats, or due to a release from selection pressure from visually hunting predators which do not enter buildings.  
  Address Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) 0028-1042 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30377809 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2140  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Czeisler, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Housing Immigrant Children – The Inhumanity of Constant Illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 379 Issue 2 Pages e3  
  Keywords Human Health; Commentary  
  Abstract  
  Address From the Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and the Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School – both in Boston  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) 0028-4793 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29932841 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1942  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Nelson, R.J.; Chbeir, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dark matters: effects of light at night on metabolism Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Nutr Soc  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 223-229  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations. Indeed, disruption of naturally evolved light-dark cycles results in several physiological and behavioural changes with potentially serious implications for physiology, behaviour and mood. In this review, data from night-shift workers on their elevated risk for metabolic disorders, as well as data from animal studies will be discussed. Night-shift workers are predisposed to obesity and dysregulated metabolism that may result from disrupted circadian rhythms. Although studies in human subjects are correlative, animal studies have revealed several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on metabolism by disrupting circadian rhythms that are associated with inflammation, both in the brain and in the periphery. Disruption of the typical timing of food intake is a key effect of light at night and subsequent metabolic dysregulation. Strategies to avoid the effects of light at night on body mass dysregulation should be pursued.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience,The Ohio State University,Columbus, OH 43210,USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) 0029-6651 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29747703 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1896  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cravens, Z.M.; Boyles, J.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating the physiological implications of artificial light on an insectivorous bat community Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Global light pollution threatens to disturb numerous wildlife species, but impacts of artificial light will likely vary among species within a community. Thus, artificial lights may change the environment in such a way as to create winners and losers as some species benefit while others do not. Insectivorous bats are nocturnal and a good model to test for differential effects of light pollution on a single community. We used a physiological technique to address this community-level question by measuring plasma ss-hydroxybutyrate (a blood metabolite) concentrations from six species of insectivorous bats in lit and unlit conditions. We also recorded bat calls acoustically to measure activity levels between experimental conditions. Blood metabolite level and acoustic activity data suggest species-specific changes in foraging around lights. In red bats (Lasiurus borealis), ss-hydroxybutyrate levels at lit sites were highest early in the night before decreasing. Acoustic data indicate pronounced peaks in activity at lit sites early in the night. In red bats on dark nights and in the other species in this community, which seem to avoid lights, ss-hydroxybutyrate remained relatively constant. Our results suggest red bats are more willing to expend energy to actively forage around lights despite potential negative impacts, while other, generally rarer species avoid lit areas. Artificial light appears to have a bifurcating effect on bat communities, whereby some species take advantage of concentrated prey resources, yet most do not. Further, this may concentrate light-intolerant species into limited dark refugia, thereby increasing competition for depauperate, phototactic insect communities.  
  Address Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30446844 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2061  
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Author Manfrin, A.; Lehmann, D.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Larsen, S.; Syväranta, J.; Wharton, G.; Voigt, C.C.; Monaghan, M.T.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dietary changes in predators and scavengers in a nocturnally illuminated riparian ecosystem Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Oikos Abbreviated Journal Oikos  
  Volume 127 Issue 7 Pages 960-969  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked by fluxes of carbon and nutrients in riparian areas. Processes that alter these fluxes may therefore change the diet and composition of consumer communities. We used stable carbon isotope (δ13C) analyses to test whether the increased abundance of aquatic prey observed in a previous study led to a dietary shift in riparian consumers in areas illuminated by artificial light at night (ALAN). We measured the contribution of aquatic-derived carbon to diets in riparian arthropods in experimentally lit and unlit sites along an agricultural drainage ditch in northern Germany. The δ13C signature of the spider Pachygnatha clercki (Tetragnathidae) was 0.7‰ lower in the ALAN-illuminated site in summer, indicating a greater assimilation of aquatic prey. Bayesian mixing models also supported higher intake of aquatic prey under ALAN in summer (34% versus 21%). In contrast, isotopic signatures for P. clercki (0.3‰) and Pardosa prativaga (0.7‰) indicated a preference for terrestrial prey in the illuminated site in summer. Terrestrial prey intake increased in spring for P. clercki under ALAN (from 70% to 74%) and in spring and autumn for P. prativaga (from 68% to 77% and from 67% to 72%) and Opiliones (from 68% to 72%; 68% to 75%). This was despite most of the available prey (up to 80%) being aquatic in origin. We conclude that ALAN changed the diet of riparian secondary consumers by increasing the density of both aquatic and terrestrial prey. Dietary changes were species- and season-specific, indicating that the effects of ALAN may interact with phenology and feeding strategy. Because streetlights can occur in high density near freshwaters, ALAN may have widespread effects on aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem linkages.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) 0030-1299 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1811  
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