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Author Hall, A.L.; Davies, H.W.; Koehoorn, M.
Title Personal light-at-night exposures and components of variability in two common shift work industries: uses and implications for future research Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Work Environ Health
Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 80-87
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Objectives Shift workers' increased risk of various adverse health outcomes has been linked to light-at-night (LAN) exposure, but few studies have measured LAN exposure in workplaces. To inform future research methods, this study aimed to (i) measure shift workers' exposures to LAN across industries, occupations, and work environments and (ii) assess components of variance across different exposure groupings and metrics. Methods Between October 2015 and March 2016, 152 personal full-shift measurements were collected from 102 night shift workers in emergency health services (paramedics, dispatchers) and healthcare industries (nurses, care aides, security guards, unit clerks, and laboratory, pharmacy, and respiratory therapy staff) in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Descriptive and variance component analyses were conducted for the 23:00-05:00 period to characterize exposures using multiple metrics of potential biological relevance (median lux, 90 thpercentile lux, sum of minutes >/=30 lux, and sum of minutes >/=100 lux). Results Average exposure levels were highest in the healthcare industry. By occupation, laboratory workers and care aides displayed the highest and emergency dispatch officers displayed the lowest levels for all LAN exposure metrics. Between-group variance was large relative to within-group variance for all exposure groupings and metrics, and increased as grouping specificity increased (moving from industry to occupation). Conclusions Results from this study suggest that high-level grouping schemes may provide a simple yet effective way of characterizing individual LAN exposures in epidemiological studies of shift work. Ongoing measurement of LAN exposures and assessment of exposure variability is needed in future studies of shift workers as a means to increase sampling efficiency, reduce measurement error, and maximize researchers' ability to detect relationships where they exist.
Address School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, V6T1Z3, Canada. amyhall@mail.ubc.ca
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN (up) 0355-3140 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28951937 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1754
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Author Cai, W.; Yue, J.; Dai, Q.; Hao, L.; Lin, Y.; Shi, W.; Huang, Y.; Wei, M.
Title The impact of room surface reflectance on corneal illuminance and rule-of-thumb equations for circadian lighting design Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 141 Issue Pages 288-297
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Recently, corneal illuminance attracts much attention because it is closely related to important functions of indoor lighting. Especially, applying circadian light in the built environment places a challenging requirement on indirect corneal illuminance. In this work, rule-of-thumb equations are proposed to guide circadian lighting design: (i) for artificial lighting, Ecor,avg (i) = (Φ/C1) · ρ/(1−ρ′), where Ecor,avg (i) is the average indirect corneal illuminance at standing or sitting positions, Φ is the initial flux from luminaires, C1 is a constant comparable to the total room surface area, ρ is the reflectance of the surface where the first reflection occurs, and ρ′ is the area-weighted average of surface reflectance; and (ii) for daylighting, Ecor,avg (i) = C2 · WWR · ρ/(1−ρ′), where C2 is a constant, and WWR represents the window-to-wall ratio.

The equations above are validated by comparing against numerical simulation data obtained with the Radiance software. For artificial lighting simulation, various combinations of room surface reflectance, initial light distribution, and WWR are investigated; and for daylighting simulation, different combinations of surface reflectance, WWR, and geographic location are analyzed. The good fits to simulation data indicate that the proposed simple equations can provide reasonably accurate results for quick feedback at the field. It is also demonstrated that room surface reflectance has a dominant impact on indirect corneal illuminance. The approach of improving surface reflectance is more favorable than increasing luminaire flux or expanding window area, and therefore should be the recommended approach to achieve quality and efficient circadian lighting.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1929
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Author Fehrer, D.; Krarti, M.
Title Spatial distribution of building energy use in the United States through satellite imagery of the earth at night Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 142 Issue Pages 252-264
Keywords remote sensing
Abstract Despite the importance of geospatial analysis of energy use in buildings, the data available for such exercises is limited. A potential solution is to use geospatial information, such as that obtained from satellites, to disaggregate building energy use data to a more useful scale. Many researchers have used satellite imagery to estimate the extent of human activities, including building energy use and population distribution. Much of the reported work has been carried out in rapidly developing countries such as India and China where urban development is dynamic and not always easy to measure. In countries with less rapid urbanization, such as the United States, there is still value in using satellite imagery to estimate building energy use for the purposes of identifying energy efficiency opportunities and planning electricity transmission. This study evaluates nighttime light imagery obtained from the VIIRS instrument aboard the SUOMI NPP satellite as a predictor of building energy use intensity within states, counties, and cities in the United States. It is found that nighttime lights can explain upwards of 90% of the variability in energy consumption in the United States, depending on conditions and geospatial scale. The results of this research are used to generate electricity and fuel consumption maps of the United States with a resolution of less than 200 square meters. The methodologies undertaken in this study can be replicated globally to create more opportunities for geospatial energy analysis without the hurdles often associated with disaggregated building energy use data collection.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1938
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Author Xu, Y.; Knudby, A.; Côté-Lussier, C.
Title Mapping ambient light at night using field observations and high-resolution remote sensing imagery for studies of urban environments Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 145 Issue Pages 104-114
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Artificial lighting allows for a variety of activities to take place in the absence of sunlight, but also has an increasingly recognized range of negative social and health-related effects. For studies of urban ambient light at night (ALN), objective and standardized data on the amount of ALN experienced by people is often unavailable at the necessary intra-urban spatial scale. In this paper, we outline options for producing such data through (1) field observations acquired with a luminance meter mounted on a vehicle, (2) a 1-m resolution image mosaic produced from a dedicated aerial survey, and (3) a 50-m resolution image taken from the International Space Station. We produce two remote sensing-derived maps of ALN for a large urban area in Canada, and compare their spatial detail to the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, a publicly available alternative data source. Convergent validity with field observations suggests that both mapping approaches can be used to quantify the amount of light humans are exposed to at night, at different locations across a large urban area, and may thus aid in further studying the varied effects of artificial nighttime lighting.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1998
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Author Du, J.; Zhang, X.; King, D.
Title An investigation into the risk of night light pollution in a glazed office building: The effect of shading solutions Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 145 Issue Pages 243-259
Keywords Lighting; Planning
Abstract Light pollution has been recognised as a major environmental problem in urban areas at night. This study presents an investigation into the impact of seven various shading solutions on the risk of light pollution caused by indoor artificial lighting in a fully glazed office building. Radiance, a ray-tracing package, was adopted to calculate external illuminances produced by indoor lighting applications at various positions. It has been determined that: 1) A glazed façade could become a critical source of light pollution or obtrusive light (sky glow and light trespass) due to applications of indoor lighting at night; 2) A light shelf could perform well on the protection of both light trespass and sky glow; 3) A large overhang and horizontal louvre could effectively lower the risk of light trespass, but would possibly cause the deterioration of sky glow; and 4) No significant impact of short overhang and vertical louvre can be found on the two aspects of light pollution. This study exposes a significant implication; apart from their principal functions, the shading devices applied in a largely glazed building may require a new role in controlling obtrusive light in cities at night.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2015
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