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Author Willmott, N.J.; Henneken, J.; Selleck, C.J.; Jones, T.M.
Title Artificial light at night alters life history in a nocturnal orb-web spider Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages e5599
Keywords Animals
Abstract The prevalence of artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasing rapidly around the world. The potential physiological costs of this night lighting are often evident in life history shifts. We investigated the effects of chronic night-time exposure to ecologically relevant levels of LED lighting on the life history traits of the nocturnal Australian garden orb-web spider (Eriophora biapicata). We reared spiders under a 12-h day and either a 12-h natural darkness (∼0 lux) or a 12-h dim light (∼20 lux) night and assessed juvenile development, growth and mortality, and adult reproductive success and survival. We found that exposure to ALAN accelerated juvenile development, resulting in spiders progressing through fewer moults, and maturing earlier and at a smaller size. There was a significant increase in daily juvenile mortality for spiders reared under 20 lux, but the earlier maturation resulted in a comparable number of 0 lux and 20 lux spiders reaching maturity. Exposure to ALAN also considerably reduced the number of eggs produced by females, and this was largely associated with ALAN-induced reductions in body size. Despite previous observations of increased fitness for some orb-web spiders in urban areas and near night lighting, it appears that exposure to artificial night lighting may lead to considerable developmental costs. Future research will need to consider the detrimental effects of ALAN combined with foraging benefits when studying nocturnal insectivores that forage around artificial lights.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2023
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Author Hanifin, J.P.; Lockley, S.W.; Cecil, K.; West, K.; Jablonski, M.; Warfield, B.; James, M.; Ayers, M.; Byrne, B.; Gerner, E.; Pineda, C.; Rollag, M.; Brainard, G.C.
Title Randomized trial of polychromatic blue-enriched light for circadian phase shifting, melatonin suppression, and alerting responses Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume in press Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Wavelength comparisons have indicated that circadian phase-shifting and enhancement of subjective and EEG-correlates of alertness have a higher sensitivity to short wavelength visible light. The aim of the current study was to test whether polychromatic light enriched in the blue portion of the spectrum (17,000K) has increased efficacy for melatonin suppression, circadian phase-shifting, and alertness as compared to an equal photon density exposure to a standard white polychromatic light (4000K). Twenty healthy participants were studied in a time-free environment for 7days. The protocol included two baseline days followed by a 26-h constant routine (CR1) to assess initial circadian phase. Following CR1, participants were exposed to a full-field fluorescent light (1x10(14) photons/cm(2)/s, 4000K or 17,000K, n=10/condition) for 6.5h during the biological night. Following an 8h recovery sleep, a second 30-h CR was performed. Melatonin suppression was assessed from the difference during the light exposure and the corresponding clock time 24h earlier during CR1. Phase-shifts were calculated from the clock time difference in dim light melatonin onset time (DLMO) between CR1 and CR2. Blue-enriched light caused significantly greater suppression of melatonin than standard light ((mean+/-SD) 70.9+/-19.6% and 42.8+/-29.1%, respectively, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the magnitude of phase delay shifts. Blue-enriched light significantly improved subjective alertness (p<0.05) but no differences were found for objective alertness. These data contribute to the optimization of the short wavelength-enriched spectra and intensities needed for circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation.
Address Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30296404 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2025
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Author Watson, L.A.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Hosken, I.T.; McGlashan, E.M.; Anderson, C.; Lack, L.C.; Lockley, S.W.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Cain, S.W.
Title Increased sensitivity of the circadian system to light in delayed sleep-wake phase disorder Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume in press Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract KEY POINTS: This is the first study to demonstrate an altered circadian phase shifting response in a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) demonstrate greater sensitivity of the circadian system to the phase delaying effects of light. Increased circadian sensitivity to light is associated with later circadian timing within both control and DSWPD groups. DSWPD patients had a greater sustained pupil response after light exposure. Treatments for DSWPD should consider sensitivity of the circadian system to light as a potential underlying vulnerability, making patients susceptible to relapse. ABSTRACT: Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) exhibit delayed sleep-wake behavior relative to desired bedtime, often leading to chronic sleep restriction and daytime dysfunction. The majority of DSWPD patients also display delayed circadian timing in the melatonin rhythm. Hypersensitivity of the circadian system to phase delaying light is a plausible physiological basis for DSWPD vulnerability. We compared the phase shifting response to a 6.5-h light exposure ( approximately 150 lux) between male patients with diagnosed DSWPD (n = 10; aged 22.4 +/- 3.3 years) and male healthy controls (n = 11; aged 22.4 +/- 2.4 years). Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured under controlled conditions in dim light (<3 lux) before and after light exposure. Correcting for the circadian time of the light exposure, DSWPD patients exhibited 31.5% greater phase delay shifts than healthy controls. In both groups, a later initial phase of the melatonin rhythm was associated with greater magnitude of phase shifts, indicating that increased circadian sensitivity to light may be a factor that contributes to delayed phase, even in non-clinical groups. DSWPD patients also had reduced pupil size following the light exposure, and showed a trend towards increased melatonin suppression during light exposure. These findings indicate that, for patients with DSWPD, assessment of light sensitivity may be an important factor that can inform behavioral therapy, including minimization of exposure to phase-delaying night-time light. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30281150 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2026
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Author Girard, M.B.; Kasumovic, M.M.; Elias, D.O.
Title The role of red coloration and song in peacock spider courtship: insights into complex signaling systems Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume in press Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Research on animal signaling enhances our understanding of links between sensory processing, decision making, behavior, and evolution. Studies of sexually-selected signals may be particularly informative as mate choice provides access to decision patterns in the way that courtship leads to an easily observable behavioral output in choosers, i.e., mating. Male peacock spiders have some of the most elaborate and varied courtship displays known among animals. Particularly striking to human observers is the diversity of red, orange, and yellow ornaments that males exhibit across the genus. The primary objective of our research was to investigate how these visual ornaments interact with vibratory songs to affect female mating behavior of one species, Maratus volans. Accordingly, we conducted mating trials under a series of experimentally manipulated vibratory and lighting conditions. Contrary to expectation, chromatic characteristics of longer wavelength ornaments are not driving female mate choice decisions, despite their extensive presence on male fans. Instead, our results suggest that contrast is important to females. Additionally, we found that vibratory signals were not necessary and did not increase mating rates. Our study demonstrates the intricacies inherent in complex signaling systems.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2027
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Author Stevens, R.G.
Title Comment on 'Domestic light at night and breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of 105 000 UK women in the Generations Study' Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer
Volume in press Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Commentary; Human Health
Abstract
Address University of Connecticut, School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT, 06032, USA. bugs@uchc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30283145 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2035
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