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Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J.
Title Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal Sci Data
Volume 5 Issue (up) Pages 180256
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.
Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769
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Author Ehrlich, D.; Schiavina, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Kemper, T.
Title Detecting spatial pattern of inequalities from remote sensing – Towards mapping of deprived communities and poverty Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication EUR 29465 EN Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages JRC113941
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Spatial inequalities across the globe are not easy to detect and satellite data have shown to be of use in this task. Earth Observation (EO) data combined with other information sources can provide complementary information to those derived from traditional methods. This research shows patterns of inequalities emerging by combining global night lights measured from Earth Observation, population density and built-up in 2015. The focus of the paper is to describe the spatial patterns that emerge by combing the three variables. This work focuses on processing EO data to derive information products, and in combining built-up- and population density with night-time lights emission. The built-up surface was derived entirely from remote sensing archives using artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques. The built-up was combined with population census data to derive population density. Also the night-time lights emission data were available from EO satellite sensors. The three layers are subsequently combined as three colour compositions based on the three primary colours (i.e. red, green and blue) to display the “spatial human settlement pattern” maps. These GHSL nightlights provide insights in inequalities across the globe. Many patterns seem to be associated with countries income. Typically, high income countries are very well lit at night, low income countries are poorly lit at night. All larger cities of the world are lit at night, those in low-income countries are often less well lit than cites in high-income countries. There are also important differences in nightlights emission in conflict areas, or along borders of countries. This report provides a selected number of patterns that are described at the regional, national and local scale. However, in depth analysis would be required to assess more precisely that relation between wealth access to energy and countries GDP, for example. This work also addresses regional inequality in GHSL nightlights in Slovakia. The country was selected to address the deprivation of the Roma minority community. The work aims to relate the information from the GHSL nightlights with that collected from field survey and census information conducted at the national level. Socio-economic data available at subnational level was correlated with nightlight. The analysis shows that despite the potential of GHSL nightlights in identifying deprived areas, the measurement scale of satellite derived nightlights at 375 x 375 m to 750 x 750 m pixel size is too coarse to capture the inequalities of deprived communities that occur at finer scale. In addition, in the European context, the gradient of inequality is not strong enough to produce strong evidence. Although there is a specific pattern of GHSL nightlights in settlements with high Roma presence, this cannot be used to identify such areas among the others. This work is part of the exploratory data analysis conducted within the GHSL team. The exploratory analysis will be followed by more quantitative assessments that will be available in future work.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher European Union Place of Publication Luxembourg Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-92-79-97528-8 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2821
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Author Asanuma, I.; Hasegawa, D.; Yamaguchi, T.; Park, J.G.; Mackin, K.J.
Title Island Activities Detected by VIIRS and Validation with AIS Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Advances in Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Ars
Volume 07 Issue (up) 03 Pages 171-182
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract A possibility to monitor the reclamation activities by remote sensing was discussed. The lights observed in the night time by Day Night Band (DNB) of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), ocean color observed in the day time by visible bands of VIIRS were the tools to monitor the surface activities, and the Automated Information System (AIS) was used to verify the types and number of vessels associated with the reclamation activities. The lights as the radiance from the surface were monitored by the object based analysis, where the object was defined as a radius of 5 km from the center of the Mischief Reef in the South China Sea (SCS). The time history of surface lights exhibited the increase of the radiance from January to May 2015 and the radiance was kept in the certain level to December 2016 with some variations. The ocean color, chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy of sediments, showed an increase from February to June 2015 and returned to a low concentration in August 2015. According to the historical data of AIS, the number of dredgers has increased from February to August 2015 and the maximum number of dredgers was recorded in June 2015. The timing of increase of lights from surface, increase of chlorophyll-a concentration, and increase of number of vessels are consistent.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2169-267X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2007
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Author Garcia-Saenz, A.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Espinosa, A.; Valentin, A.; Aragonés, N.; Llorca, J.; Amiano, P.; Martín Sánchez, V.; Guevara, M.; Capelo, R.; Tardón, A.; Peiró-Perez, R.; Jiménez-Moleón, J.J.; Roca-Barceló, A.; Pérez-Gómez, B.; Dierssen-Sotos, T.; Fernández-Villa, T.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Moreno, V.; García-Pérez, J.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Pollán, M.; Aubé, M.; Kogevinas, M.
Title Evaluating the Association between Artificial Light-at-Night Exposure and Breast and Prostate Cancer Risk in Spain (MCC-Spain Study) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal
Volume 126 Issue (up) 04 Pages
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Background: Night shift work, exposure to light at night (ALAN) and circadian disruption may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers.

Objectives: We evaluated the association of exposure to ALAN during sleeping time with breast and prostate cancer in a population based multicase–control study (MCC-Spain), among subjects who had never worked at night. We evaluated chronotype, a characteristic that may relate to adaptation to light at night.

Methods: We enrolled 1,219 breast cancer cases, 1,385 female controls, 623 prostate cancer cases, and 879 male controls from 11 Spanish regions in 2008–2013. Indoor ALAN information was obtained through questionnaires. Outdoor ALAN was analyzed using images from the International Space Station (ISS) available for Barcelona and Madrid for 2012–2013, including data of remotely sensed upward light intensity and blue light spectrum information for each geocoded longest residence of each MCC-Spain subject.

Results: Among Barcelona and Madrid participants with information on both indoor and outdoor ALAN, exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue light spectrum was associated with breast cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for highest vs. lowest tertile, OR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.17] and prostate cancer (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.03). In contrast, those exposed to the highest versus lowest intensity of outdoor ALAN were more likely to be controls than cases, particularly for prostate cancer. Compared with those who reported sleeping in total darkness, men who slept in “quite illuminated” bedrooms had a higher risk of prostate cancer (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.04), whereas women had a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.51).

Conclusion: Both prostate and breast cancer were associated with high estimated exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue-enriched light spectrum.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1871
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Author Malik, N.; Raj, A.; Dhasmana, R.; Bahadur, H.
Title Effect of Late Night Studying and Excessive Use of Video Display Terminals on the Ocular Health of Medical Undergraduate Students in A Tertiary Care Hospital Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Exp Ophthalmol
Volume 09 Issue (up) 06 Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of late night study and excessive use of smart phones on the ocular health of medical undergraduate students.

Design: An observational and cross-sectional study.

Participants: Two hundred and fifty nine normal and healthy M.B.B.S students of age 18-25 y were included in the study over a period of two months.

Methods: All the volunteers underwent an interview in form of a questionnaire. A complete ophthalmic examination was done including snellen visual acuity assessment, anterior segment examination with slit lamp, posterior segment with direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy; Schirmer’s test and tear film break up time.

Results: A total of 259 subjects were included in the study and maximum subjects 160 (61.8%) were females. According to age, the students were divided in two groups as I and II with age of 17-20 y and 21-23 y respectively. Maximum 195 (75.3%) students belonged to group I. Maximum subjects 245 (94.5%) were using only smartphones and 239 (92.27%) subjects were using smartphones for more than 2 y. The maximum 136 (52.51%) students studied at night with maximum using tube light 112 (43.24%). A significant association was seen between the digital device used and age of the subject (p value=0.01). Number of symptoms experienced by the students showed significant relationship with the number of hours of smartphone usage (p value=0.02). Source of light in which the students studied at night was significantly associated with the number of symptoms experienced (p value=0.03). An association between usage of smartphones (hours) showed significant relationship with slit lamp examination (tear debri) and Schirmer’s (less than 15 mm) with p value of 0.03, 0.05 respectively.

Conclusion: Source of light used to study at night and number of hours of use of devices shows relationship with symptoms. Smart phone users showed computer-related eye problems in more than half of the subjects.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2155-9570 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2197
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