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Author Hänel, A.; Posch, T.; Ribas, S.J.; Aubé, M.; Duriscoe, D.; Jechow, A.; Kollath, Z.; Lolkema, D.E.; Moore, C.; Schmidt, N.; Spoelstra, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 205 Issue (up) Pages 278-290  
  Keywords skyglow  
  Abstract Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earthâ??s atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the â??Sky Quality Meterâ? continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1731  
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Author Neri, L.; Coscieme, L.; Giannetti, B.F.; Pulselli, F.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Imputing missing data in non-renewable empower time series from night-time lights observations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators  
  Volume 84 Issue (up) Pages 106-118  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Emergy is an environmental accounting tool, with a specific set of indicators, that proved to be highly informative for sustainability assessment of national economies. The empower, defined as emergy per unit time, is a measure of the overall flow of resources used by a system in order to support its functioning. Continuous time-series of empower are not available for most of the world countries, due to the large amount of data needed for its calculation year by year. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap by means of a model that facilitates reconstruction of continuous time series of the non-renewable component of empower for a set of 57 countries of the world from 1995 to 2012. The reconstruction is based on a 3 year global emergy dataset and on the acknowledged relationships between the use of non-renewables, satellite observed artificial lights emitted at night, and Gross Domestic Product. Results show that this method provides accurate estimations of non-renewable empower at the country scale. The estimation model can be extended onward and backward in time and replicated for more countries, also using higher-resolution satellite imageries newly available. Besides representing an important advancement in emergy theory, this information is helpful for monitoring progresses toward Sustainable Development and energy use international goals.  
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  ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1706  
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Author Mammola, S.; Isaia, M.; Demonte, D.; Triolo, P.; Nervo, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial lighting triggers the presence of urban spiders and their webs on historical buildings Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning  
  Volume 180 Issue (up) Pages 187-194  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract Different spider species living in the urban environment spin their webs on building facades. Due to air pollution, web aggregations entrap dirt particles over time, assuming a brownish-greyish colouration and thus determining an aesthetic impact on buildings and street furniture. In Europe, the most common species causing such an aesthetic nuisance is Brigittea civica (Lucas) (Dictynidae). In spite of the socio-economical relevance of the problem, the ecological factors driving the proliferation of this species in the urban environment are poorly described and the effectiveness of potential cleaning activities has never been discussed in scientific literature. Over one year, we studied the environmental drivers of B. civica webs in the arcades of the historical down-town district of Turin (NW-Italy). We selected a number of sampling plots on arcade ceilings and we estimated the density of B. civica webs by means of digital image analysis. In parallel, we collected information on a number of potential explanatory variables driving the arcade colonization, namely artificial lighting at night, substrate temperature, distance from the main artificial light sources and distance from the river. Regression analysis showed that the coverage of spider webs increased significantly at plots with higher light intensity, with a major effect related to the presence of historical lampposts with incandescent lamps rather than halogen lamps. We also detected a seasonal variation in the web coverage, with significant higher values in summer. Stemming from our results, we are able to suggest good practices for the containment of this phenomenon.  
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  ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2002  
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Author Russart, K.L.G.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light at night as an environmental endocrine disruptor Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 190 Issue (up) Pages 82-89  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals  
  Abstract Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are often consequences of human activity; however, the effects of EEDs are not limited to humans. A primary focus over the past approximately 30years has been on chemical EEDs, but the repercussions of non-chemical EEDs, such as artificial light at night (LAN), are of increasing interest. The sensitivity of the circadian system to light and the influence of circadian organization on overall physiology and behavior make the system a target for disruption with widespread effects. Indeed, there is increasing evidence for a role of LAN in human health, including disruption of circadian regulation and melatonin signaling, metabolic dysregulation, cancer risk, and disruption of other hormonally-driven systems. These effects are not limited to humans; domesticated animals as well as wildlife are also exposed to LAN, and at risk for disrupted circadian rhythms. Here, we review data that support the role of LAN as an endocrine disruptor in humans to be considered in treatments and lifestyle suggestions. We also present the effects of LAN in other animals, and discuss the potential for ecosystem-wide effects of artificial LAN. This can inform decisions in agricultural practices and urban lighting decisions to avoid unintended outcomes.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28870443 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1719  
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Author Souman, J.L.; Tinga, A.M.; Te Pas, S.F.; van Ee, R.; Vlaskamp, B.N.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute alerting effects of light: a systematic literature review Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 337 Issue (up) Pages 228-239  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects and to assess to what extent they depend on other factors, such as time of day, exposure duration and sleep pressure. In total, we identified 74 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distribution, or both were manipulated, and the effects on behavioral measures of alertness were evaluated, either subjectively or measured in performance tasks. The results show that increasing the intensity or the color temperature of polychromatic white light in general has been found to increase subjective ratings of alertness, though a substantial proportion of these studies failed to find significant effects. There is little evidence in the literature that these subjective alerting effects of light also translate into improvements on performance measures of alertness. For monochromatic or narrowband light exposure, some studies have shown improvement in reaction time tasks with exposure to blue light, but generally this was not accompanied by changes in subjective alertness. Thus, the alerting effects of light are far less clear than often suggested. We suggest that in future studies more attention should be paid to other factors that may influence the effects of light, such as chronotype, circadian phase, homeostatic state and prior light history.  
  Address Philips Research (Department Brain, Behavior & Cognition), Eindhoven, The Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28912014 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1727  
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