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Author Gaydecki, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Automated moth flight analysis in the vicinity of artificial light Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Bulletin of Entomological Research Abbreviated Journal Bull Entomol Res  
  Volume 109 Issue (up) 1 Pages 127-140  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Animals  
  Abstract Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7.1 m, depending upon the experiment. Moths were imaged in early September, at night and in field conditions, using a ground level video camera with associated optics including a heated steering mirror, wide angle lens and an electronic image intensifier. Moth flight coordinates were recorded at a rate of 50 images per second (fields) and transferred to a computer using a light pen (the only non-automated operation in the processing sequence). Software extracted ground speed vectors and, by instantaneous subtraction of wind speed data supplied by fast-response anemometers, the airspeed vectors. Accumulated density profiles of the track data revealed that moths spend most of their time at a radius of between 40 and 50 cm from the source, and rarely fly directly above it, from close range. Furthermore, the proportion of insects caught by the trap as a proportion of the number influenced by the light (and within the field of view of the camera) was very low; of 1600 individual tracks recorded over five nights, a total of only 12 were caught. Although trap efficiency is strongly dependent on trap height, time of night, season, moonlight and weather, the data analysis confirmed that moths do not exhibit straightforward positive phototaxis. In general, trajectory patterns become more complex with reduced distance from the illumination, with higher recorded values of speeds and angular velocities. However, these characteristics are further qualified by the direction of travel of the insect; the highest accelerations tended to occur when the insect was at close range, but moving away from the source. Rather than manifesting a simple positive phototaxis, the trajectories were suggestive of disorientation. Based on the data and the complex behavioural response, mathematical models were developed that described ideal density distribution in calm air and light wind speed conditions. The models did not offer a physiological hypothesis regarding the behavioural changes, but rather were tools for quantification and prediction. Since the time that the system was developed, instrumentation, computers and software have advanced considerably, allowing much more to be achieved at a small fraction of the original cost. Nevertheless, the analytical tools remain useful for automated trajectory analysis of airborne insects.  
  Address School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester,Manchester M13 9PL,UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-4853 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29745349 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1895  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author McKenna, H.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Reiss, I.; Martin, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Clinical chronobiology: a timely consideration in critical care medicine Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Critical Care (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Crit Care  
  Volume 22 Issue (up) 1 Pages 124  
  Keywords Human Health; Review  
  Abstract A fundamental aspect of human physiology is its cyclical nature over a 24-h period, a feature conserved across most life on Earth. Organisms compartmentalise processes with respect to time in order to promote survival, in a manner that mirrors the rotation of the planet and accompanying diurnal cycles of light and darkness. The influence of circadian rhythms can no longer be overlooked in clinical settings; this review provides intensivists with an up-to-date understanding of the burgeoning field of chronobiology, and suggests ways to incorporate these concepts into daily practice to improve patient outcomes. We outline the function of molecular clocks in remote tissues, which adjust cellular and global physiological function according to the time of day, and the potential clinical advantages to keeping in time with them. We highlight the consequences of “chronopathology”, when this harmony is lost, and the risk factors for this condition in critically ill patients. We introduce the concept of “chronofitness” as a new target in the treatment of critical illness: preserving the internal synchronisation of clocks in different tissues, as well as external synchronisation with the environment. We describe methods for monitoring circadian rhythms in a clinical setting, and how this technology may be used for identifying optimal time windows for interventions, or to alert the physician to a critical deterioration of circadian rhythmicity. We suggest a chronobiological approach to critical illness, involving multicomponent strategies to promote chronofitness (chronobundles), and further investment in the development of personalised, time-based treatment for critically ill patients.  
  Address Critical Care Unit, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK. daniel.martin@ucl.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-8535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29747699 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1897  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author De Magalhaes Filho, C.D.; Henriquez, B.; Seah, N.E.; Evans, R.M.; Lapierre, L.R.; Dillin, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Visible light reduces C. elegans longevity Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Nature Communications Abbreviated Journal Nat Commun  
  Volume 9 Issue (up) 1 Pages 927  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can sense UV and blue-violet light to alter behavior. Because high-dose UV and blue-violet light are not a common feature outside of the laboratory setting, we asked what role, if any, could low-intensity visible light play in C. elegans physiology and longevity. Here, we show that C. elegans lifespan is inversely correlated to the time worms were exposed to visible light. While circadian control, lite-1 and tax-2 do not contribute to the lifespan reduction, we demonstrate that visible light creates photooxidative stress along with a general unfolded-protein response that decreases the lifespan. Finally, we find that long-lived mutants are more resistant to light stress, as well as wild-type worms supplemented pharmacologically with antioxidants. This study reveals that transparent nematodes are sensitive to visible light radiation and highlights the need to standardize methods for controlling the unrecognized biased effect of light during lifespan studies in laboratory conditions.  
  Address The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Molecular and Cell Biology Department, Li Ka Shing Center, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA. dillin@berkeley.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2041-1723 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29500338; PMCID:PMC5834526 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1904  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wu, B.; Wang, Y.; Wu, X.; Liu, D.; Xu, D.; Wang, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and countermeasures Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Military Medical Research Abbreviated Journal Mil Med Res  
  Volume 5 Issue (up) 1 Pages 17  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Sufficient sleep duration and good sleep quality are crucial to ensure normal physical and mental health, cognition and work performance for the common people, as well as astronauts. On-orbit sleep problem is very common among astronauts and has potential detrimental influences on the health of crewmembers and the safety of flight missions. Sleep in space is becoming a new medical research frontier. In this review we summarized on-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and six kinds of causes, and we presented the effects of lack of sleep on performance as well as mental and physical health, then we proposed seven kinds of countermeasures for sleep disturbance in spaceflight, including pharmacologic interventions, light treatment, crew selection and training, Traditional Chinese Medicine and so on. Furthermore, we discussed and oriented the prospect of researches on sleep in space.  
  Address State Key Laboratory of Space Medicine Fundamentals and Application, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, No. 26 Beiqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100094, People's Republic of China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-9369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29843821; PMCID:PMC5975626 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1930  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Grubisic, M.; Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Manfrin, A.; Hölker, F. openurl 
  Title Insect declines and agroecosystems: does light pollution matter? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Annals of Applied Biology Abbreviated Journal Ann. of Appl. Biol.  
  Volume 173 Issue (up) 1 Pages 180-189  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Review  
  Abstract Drastic declines in insect populations, ‘Ecological Armageddon’, have recently gained increased attention in the scientific community, and are commonly considered to be the consequence of large‐scale factors such as land‐use changes, use of pesticides, climate change and habitat fragmentation. Artificial light at night (ALAN), a pervasive global change that strongly impacts insects, remains, however, infrequently recognised as a potential contributor to the observed declines. Here, we provide a summary of recent evidence of impacts of ALAN on insects and discuss how these impacts can drive declines in insect populations in light‐polluted areas. ALAN can increase overall environmental pressure on insect populations, and this is particularly important in agroecosystems where insect communities provide important ecosystem services (such as natural pest control, pollination, conservation of soil structure and fertility and nutrient cycling), and are already under considerable environmental pressure. We discuss how changes in insect populations driven by ALAN and ALAN itself may hinder these services to influence crop production and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Understanding the contribution of ALAN and other factors to the decline of insects is an important step towards mitigation and the recovery of the insect fauna in our landscapes. In future studies, the role of increased nocturnal illumination also needs to be examined as a possible causal factor of insect declines in the ongoing ‘Ecological Armageddon’, along with the more commonly examined factors. Given the large scale of agricultural land use and the potential of ALAN to indirectly and directly impact crop production and biodiversity, a better understanding of effects of ALAN in agroecosystems is urgently needed.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1939  
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