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Author Halfwerk, W.; Blaas, M.; Kramer, L.; Hijner, N.; Trillo, P.A.; Bernal, X.E.; Page, R.A.; Goutte, S.; Ryan, M.J.; Ellers, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Adaptive changes in sexual signalling in response to urbanization Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages 374-380  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Urbanization can cause species to adjust their sexual displays, because the effectiveness of mating signals is influenced by environmental conditions. Despite many examples that show that mating signals in urban conditions differ from those in rural conditions, we do not know whether these differences provide a combined reproductive and survival benefit to the urban phenotype. Here we show that male tungara frogs have increased the conspicuousness of their calls, which is under strong sexual and natural selection by signal receivers, as an adaptive response to city life. The urban phenotype consequently attracts more females than the forest phenotype, while avoiding the costs that are imposed by eavesdropping bats and midges, which we show are rare in urban areas. Finally, we show in a translocation experiment that urban frogs can reduce risk of predation and parasitism when moved to the forest, but that forest frogs do not increase their sexual attractiveness when moved to the city. Our findings thus reveal that urbanization can rapidly drive adaptive signal change via changes in both natural and sexual selection pressures.  
  Address Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30532046 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2136  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Czaczkes, T.J.; Bastidas-Urrutia, A.M.; Ghislandi, P.; Tuni, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reduced light avoidance in spiders from populations in light-polluted urban environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Die Naturwissenschaften Abbreviated Journal Naturwissenschaften  
  Volume 105 Issue 11-12 Pages 64  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Increased urbanisation is leading to a rise in light pollution. Light pollution can disrupt the behaviour and physiology of animals resulting in increased mortality. However, animals may also benefit from artificial light sources, as these may aggregate prey or signal suitable environments. For example, spiders are commonly seen congregating around artificial light sources. Changes in selective pressures engendered by urban environments are driving changes in urban organisms, driving better adaptation to these environments. Here, we ask whether urban populations of the synanthropic spider Steatoda triangulosa show different responses to light compared to rural populations. Egg-sacs from urban and rural populations were collected and incubated in a common garden setting, and the emerging spiderlings tested for light preference. While rural spiderlings avoided light (37% built webs in the light), urban spiderlings were indifferent to it (49% built webs in the light). Reduced light avoidance may benefit spiders through increased prey capture, increased movement into suitable habitats, or due to a release from selection pressure from visually hunting predators which do not enter buildings.  
  Address Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-1042 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30377809 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2140  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Flores, D.E.F.L.; Oda, G.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Novel Light/Dark Regimens with Minimum Light Promote Circadian Disruption: Simulations with a Model Oscillator Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Artificial lab manipulation of LD cycles has enabled simulations of the disruptive conditions found in modern human societies, such as jet-lag, night-work and light at night. New techniques using animal models have been developed, and these can greatly improve our understanding of circadian disruption. Some of these techniques, such as in vivo bioluminescence assays, require minimum external light. This requirement is challenging because the usual lighting protocols applied in circadian desynchronization experiments rely on considerable light input. Here, we present a novel LD regimen that can disrupt circadian rhythms with little light per day, based on computer simulations of a model limit-cycle oscillator. The model predicts that a single light pulse per day has the potential to disturb rhythmicity when pulse times are randomly distributed within an interval. Counterintuitively, the rhythm still preserves an underlying 24-h periodicity when this interval is as large as 14 h, indicating that day/night cues are still detectable. Only when pulses are spread throughout the whole 24-h day does the rhythm lose any day-to-day period correlation. In addition, the model also reveals that stronger pulses of brighter light should exacerbate the disrupting effects. We propose the use of this LD schedule-which would be compatible with the requirements of in vivo bioluminescence assays-to help understand circadian disruption and associated illnesses.  
  Address Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30595077 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2146  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, H.M.; Neaves, L.E.; Divljan, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Predation on cicadas by an Australian Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus based on DNA evidence Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Australian Zoologist Abbreviated Journal Australian Zoologist  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Historically, reports of insectivory in family Pteropodidae have largely been anecdotal and thought to be an incidental corollary of flying-foxes feeding on plant products. More recent direct observations of flying-foxes catching and consuming insects, as well as advances in techniques that increase our ability to detect dietary items, suggest that this behaviour may be deliberate and more common than previously thought. Usually, multiple insects are consumed, but it appears that flying-foxes hunt and eat them one at a time. However, we have collected and photographed oral ejecta pellets under trees with high flying-fox activity, some containing evidence of multiple masticated insects. Further genetic analysis proved that these pellets came from Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pteropus poliocephalus. We propose that flying-foxes use an array of insect feeding strategies, most likely in response to variation in insect abundance and activity, as well as abiotic factors such as light and temperature.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0067-2238 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2148  
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Author Hines, C.W.; Fang, Y.; Chan, V.K.S.; Stiller, K.T.; Brauner, C.J.; Richards, J.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of salinity and photoperiod on thermal tolerance of Atlantic and coho salmon reared from smolt to adult in recirculating aquaculture systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol  
  Volume 230 Issue Pages 1-6  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Land-based, closed containment salmon aquaculture involves rearing salmon from smolt to adult in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Unlike in open-net pen aquaculture, rearing conditions can be specified in RAS in order to optimize growth and physiological stress tolerance. The environmental conditions that yield optimal stress tolerance in salmon are, however, unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we reared Atlantic (Salmo salar) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon in 7 separate RASs for 400days post-smoltification under 2 photoperiods (24:0 or 12:12, light:dark) and 4 salinities (2.5, 5, 10 or 30ppt.) and assessed the effects of these conditions on thermal tolerance. We found that over the first 120days post-smoltification, rearing coho under a 24:0 photoperiod resulted in a ~2 degrees C lower critical thermal maxima (CTmax) than in coho reared under a 12:12 photoperiod. This photoperiod effect did not persist at 200 and 400days, which was coincident with an overall decrease in CTmax in coho. Finally, Atlantic salmon had a higher CTmax (~28 degrees C) compared to coho (~26 degrees C) at 400days post-smoltification. Overall, these findings are important for the future implications of RAS and for the aquaculture industry to help identify physiologically sensitive time stages.  
  Address Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30590111 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2149  
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