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Author Stern, M.; Broja, M.; Sansone, R.; Grone, M.; Skene, S.S.; Liebmann, J.; Suschek, C.V.; Born, M.; Kelm, M.; Heiss, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blue light exposure decreases systolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and improves endothelial function in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication European Journal of Preventive Cardiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Prev Cardiol  
  Volume 25 Issue 17 Pages 1875-1883  
  Keywords Human Health; Blue light; blood pressure; endothelial function; forearm blood flow; pulse wave velocity  
  Abstract AIMS: Previous studies have shown that ultraviolet light can lead to the release of nitric oxide from the skin and decrease blood pressure. In contrast to visible light the local application of ultraviolet light bears a cancerogenic risk. Here, we investigated whether whole body exposure to visible blue light can also decrease blood pressure and increase endothelial function in healthy subjects. METHODS: In a randomised crossover study, 14 healthy male subjects were exposed on 2 days to monochromatic blue light or blue light with a filter foil (control light) over 30 minutes. We measured blood pressure (primary endpoint), heart rate, forearm vascular resistance, forearm blood flow, endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), pulse wave velocity and plasma nitric oxide species, nitrite and nitroso compounds (secondary endpoints) during and up to 2 hours after exposure. RESULTS: Blue light exposure significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and increased heart rate as compared to control. In parallel, blue light significantly increased forearm blood flow, flow-mediated dilation, circulating nitric oxide species and nitroso compounds while it decreased forearm vascular resistance and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSION: Whole body irradiation with visible blue light at real world doses improves blood pressure, endothelial function and arterial stiffness by nitric oxide released from photolabile intracutanous nitric oxide metabolites into circulating blood.  
  Address Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Stag Hill, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. Email: c.heiss(at)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-4873 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30196723 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2157  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wood, J.M.; Isoardi, G.; Black, A.; Cowling, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time driving visibility associated with LED streetlight dimming Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 121 Issue Pages 295-300  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract New LED streetlighting designs and dimming are being introduced worldwide, however, while their cost savings are well established, their impact on driving performance has received little attention. This study investigated the effect of streetlight dimming on night-time driving performance. Participants included 14 licensed drivers (mean age 34.2 +/- 4.9 years, range 27-40 years) who drove an instrumented vehicle around a closed circuit at night. Six LED streetlights were positioned along a 250 m, straight section and their light output varied between laps (dimming levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum output; L25, L50, L75 and L100 respectively; at 100% average road surface luminance of 1.14 cd/m(2)). Driving tasks involved recognition distances and reaction times to a low contrast, moving target and a pedestrian walking at the roadside. Participants drove at an average driving speed of 55 km/hr in the streetlight zone. Streetlight dimming significantly delayed driver reaction times to the moving target (F3,13.06 = 6.404; p = 0.007); with an average 0.4 s delay in reaction times under L25 compared to L100, (estimated reduction in recognition distances of 6 m). Pedestrian recognition distances were significantly shorter under dimmed streetlight levels (F3,12.75 = 8.27; p = 0.003); average pedestrian recognition distances were 15 m shorter under L25 compared to L100, and 11 m shorter under L50 compared to L100. These data suggest that streetlight dimming impacts on driver visibility but it is unclear how these differences impact on safety; future studies are required to inform decisions on safe dimming levels for road networks.  
  Address School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30317014 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2160  
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Author Meier, J. url  openurl
  Title Contentious Light: An Analytical Framework for Lighting Conflicts Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 62-77  
  Keywords Society; Lighting; Planning  
  Abstract This paper takes into view the broad range of contemporary conflicts regarding outdoor lighting. It proposes a working-definition that allows for differentiating lighting conflicts from other forms of lighting-related contention, as well as an analytical framework that allows for the structured description of individual lighting conflicts, and the comparative analysis of multiple cases. The analytical framework was developed based on the social-scientific analysis of media reports of existing conflict cases in Europe and North America, and informed by existing knowledge from the fields of lighting and conflict studies. A central challenge for developing such a framework is dealing with the high level of contingency and complexity of lighting conflicts. The framework reduces this complexity by focusing its field of vision to those aspects that are directly related to the lighting and its contestation. For each of these aspects, it provides sets of descriptive variables that allow for describing the conflicts’ individuality in a standardized – and thus comparable – way. The framework strictly separates the regarded aspects from their judgment by the conflict parties, making it possible to contrast their views on one and the same lighting situation. A visual template supports the process of analysis. It allows for depicting individual cases in short, and for clearly identifying where perspectives differ. At the multiple-case level, the framework not only opens up possibilities for spatial and temporal comparisons of lighting conflicts and the subsequent development of typologies, but also for harnessing their potential for informing the development of more sustainable planning and policy approaches for artificial lighting.  
  Address Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany; josiane.meier(at)tu-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher IJSL Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2190  
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Author Wittenbrink, N.; Ananthasubramaniam, B.; Munch, M.; Koller, B.; Maier, B.; Weschke, C.; Bes, F.; de Zeeuw, J.; Nowozin, C.; Wahnschaffe, A.; Wisniewski, S.; Zaleska, M.; Bartok, O.; Ashwal-Fluss, R.; Lammert, H.; Herzel, H.; Hummel, M.; Kadener, S.; Kunz, D.; Kramer, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title High-accuracy determination of internal circadian time from a single blood sample Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Journal of Clinical Investigation Abbreviated Journal J Clin Invest  
  Volume 128 Issue 9 Pages 3826-3839  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is a fundamental and pervasive biological program that coordinates 24-hour rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior, and it is essential to health. Whereas therapy adapted to time of day is increasingly reported to be highly successful, it needs to be personalized, since internal circadian time is different for each individual. In addition, internal time is not a stable trait, but is influenced by many factors, including genetic predisposition, age, sex, environmental light levels, and season. An easy and convenient diagnostic tool is currently missing. METHODS: To establish a validated test, we followed a 3-stage biomarker development strategy: (a) using circadian transcriptomics of blood monocytes from 12 individuals in a constant routine protocol combined with machine learning approaches, we identified biomarkers for internal time; and these biomarkers (b) were migrated to a clinically relevant gene expression profiling platform (NanoString) and (c) were externally validated using an independent study with 28 early or late chronotypes. RESULTS: We developed a highly accurate and simple assay (BodyTime) to estimate the internal circadian time in humans from a single blood sample. Our assay needs only a small set of blood-based transcript biomarkers and is as accurate as the current gold standard method, dim-light melatonin onset, at smaller monetary, time, and sample-number cost. CONCLUSION: The BodyTime assay provides a new diagnostic tool for personalization of health care according to the patient's circadian clock. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung, Germany (FKZ: 13N13160 and 13N13162) and Intellux GmbH, Germany.  
  Address Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universitat Berlin, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Laboratory of Chronobiology, Berlin, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9738 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29953415; PMCID:PMC6118629 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2194  
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Author Wallace, H. D. openurl 
  Title Electric Lighting Policy in the Federal Government, 1880-2016 Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords History; Policy; Lighting  
  Abstract Federal policies have targeted electric lighting since the 1880s with varying success. This dissertation examines the history of those policies to understand policy makers’ intent and how their decisions affected the course of events. This qualitative study poses three research questions: How have changes in lamp efficacy affected policy development? How and why have federal policies targeted electric lighting? How have private sector actors adapted public policy to further their own goals? The analysis uses an interdisciplinary approach taking advantage of overlapping methodologies drawn from policy and political sciences, economics, and the history of technology. The concepts of path dependency, context, and actor networks are especially important. Adoption of electric lighting spurred the construction of complex and capital intensive infrastructures now considered indispensable, and lighting always consumed a significant fraction of US electric power. Engineers and scientists created many lamps over the decades, in part to meet a growing demand for energy efficient products. Invention and diffusion of those lamps occurred amid changing standards and definitions of efficiency, shifting relations between network actors, and the development of path dependencies that constrained efforts to affect change. Federal actors typically used lighting policy to conserve resources, promote national security, or to symbolically emphasize the onset of a national crisis. The study shows that after an initial introductory phase, lighting-specific policies developed during two distinct periods. The earlier period consisted of intermittent, crisis-driven federal interventions of mixed success. The later period featured a sustained engagement between public and private sectors wherein incremental adjustments achieved policy goals. A time of transition occurred between the two main periods during which technical, economic, and political contexts changed, while several core social values remained constant. In both early and later periods, private sector actors used policy opportunities to further commercial goals, a practice that public sector actors in the later period used to promote policy acceptance. Recently enacted energy standards removing ordinary incandescent lamps in favor of high efficiency lamps mark the end of the later period. Apparent success means that policy makers should reconsider how they use lighting to achieve future goals.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher University of Maryland Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2210  
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