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Author Ostrin, L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ocular and systemic melatonin and the influence of light exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Clinical & Experimental Optometry Abbreviated Journal Clin Exp Optom  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Vision; Review; Human Health  
  Abstract Melatonin is a neurohormone known to modulate a wide range of circadian functions, including sleep. The synthesis and release of melatonin from the pineal gland is heavily influenced by light stimulation of the retina, particularly through the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Melatonin is also synthesised within the eye, although to a much lesser extent than in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts directly on ocular structures to mediate a variety of diurnal rhythms and physiological processes within the eye. The interactions between melatonin, the eye, and visual function have been the subject of a considerable body of recent research. This review is intended to provide a broad introduction for eye-care practitioners and researchers to the topic of melatonin and the eye. The first half of the review describes the anatomy and physiology of melatonin production: how visual inputs affect the pineal production of melatonin; how melatonin is involved in a variety of diurnal rhythms within the eye, including photoreceptor disc shedding, neuronal sensitivity, and intraocular pressure control; and melatonin production and physiological roles in retina, ciliary body, lens and cornea. The second half of the review describes clinical implications of light/melatonin interactions. These include light exposure and photoreceptor contributions in melatonin suppression, leading to consideration of how blue blockers, cataract, and light therapy might affect sleep and mood in patients. Additionally, the interactions between melatonin, sleep and refractive error development are discussed. A better understanding of environmental factors that affect melatonin and subsequent effects on physiological processes will allow clinicians to develop treatments and recommend modifiable behaviours to improve sleep, increase daytime alertness, and regulate ocular and systemic processes related to melatonin.  
  Address University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston, Texas, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0816-4622 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30074278 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1986  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gaynor, K.M.; Hojnowski, C.E.; Carter, N.H.; Brashares, J.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The influence of human disturbance on wildlife nocturnality Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 360 Issue 6394 Pages 1232-1235  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Rapid expansion of human activity has driven well-documented shifts in the spatial distribution of wildlife, but the cumulative effect of human disturbance on the temporal dynamics of animals has not been quantified. We examined anthropogenic effects on mammal diel activity patterns, conducting a meta-analysis of 76 studies of 62 species from six continents. Our global study revealed a strong effect of humans on daily patterns of wildlife activity. Animals increased their nocturnality by an average factor of 1.36 in response to human disturbance. This finding was consistent across continents, habitats, taxa, and human activities. As the global human footprint expands, temporal avoidance of humans may facilitate human-wildlife coexistence. However, such responses can result in marked shifts away from natural patterns of activity, with consequences for fitness, population persistence, community interactions, and evolution.  
  Address Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher AAAS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29903973 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1988  
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Author Mard, J.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Mazzoleni, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime light data reveal how flood protection shapes human proximity to rivers Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages eaar5779  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract To understand the spatiotemporal changes of flood risk, we need to determine the way in which humans adapt and respond to flood events. One adaptation option consists of resettling away from flood-prone areas to prevent or reduce future losses. We use satellite nighttime light data to discern the relationship between long-term changes in human proximity to rivers and the occurrence of catastrophic flood events. Moreover, we explore how these relationships are influenced by different levels of structural flood protection. We found that societies with low protection levels tend to resettle further away from the river after damaging flood events. Conversely, societies with high protection levels show no significant changes in human proximity to rivers. Instead, such societies continue to rely heavily on structural measures, reinforcing flood protection and quickly resettling in flood-prone areas after a flooding event. Our work reveals interesting aspects of human adaptation to flood risk and offers key insights for comparing different risk reduction strategies. In addition, this study provides a framework that can be used to further investigate human response to floods, which is relevant as urbanization of floodplains continues and puts more people and economic assets at risk.  
  Address IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30140738; PMCID:PMC6105301 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1989  
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Author Almaida-Pagan, P.F.; Ortega-Sabater, C.; Lucas-Sanchez, A.; Martinez-Nicolas, A.; Espinosa, C.; Esteban, M.A.; Madrid, J.A.; Rol, M.; Mendiola, P.; de Costa, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of a shift work-like lighting schedule on the functioning of the circadian system in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Experimental Gerontology Abbreviated Journal Exp Gerontol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Adult Nothobranchius furzeri of the MZM-04/10 strain were individually kept and subjected to a “5+2” shifting lighting schedule (SHIFT) for 8weeks in order to evaluate the desynchronizing effects of a simulated human-like shift-work schedule on the functioning of the circadian system (CS). With this aim, sixteen 21-week-old N. furzeri were placed into a Morning, Night and Evening schedule (lights on from 08:00 to 16:00, 00:00 to 08:00 and 16:00 to 00:00h, respectively) and fed once a day in the middle of the corresponding photophase (12:00, 04:00 and 20:00h, respectively). Then, in the weekends (2days), fish were always returned to the Morning shift. As controls, 16 fish were maintained under a non-shifting LD cycle condition (CONTROL) throughout the whole experiment, with lights on from 08:00 to 16:00h. Rest-activity rhythm (RAR) of fish subjected to SHIFT showed several symptoms of chronodisruption, such as a decrease in the percentage of diurnal activity and a reduction of the relative amplitude and the circadian function index with time. When a periodogram analysis was performed, RAR of N. furzeri under SHIFT conditions showed up to three separate circadian components: one longer than 24h (26.5h) that followed the weekly 8h delays; a short-period component (~23h) that was related to the weekend's phase advances, and finally, a 24h component. The shifting LD schedule also affected fish CS at a molecular level, with several significant differences in the expression of core genes of the molecular clock (bmal1, clock, roralpha, rev-erbalpha) between SHIFT and CONTROL animals. RAR impairment along with changes in clock gene expression could be associated with high stress and accelerated aging in these fish.  
  Address Chronobiology Lab, Department of Physiology, College of Biology, University of Murcia, Mare Nostrum Campus, IUIE, IMIB-Arrixaca, Spain; Ciber Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Madrid, Spain  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0531-5565 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30184464 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1999  
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Author Ma, Q.; Tan, Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, S.; Sun, Y.; Zhou, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway by miR-421-5p in rats under light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Molecular Medicine Abbreviated Journal Int J Mol Med  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The present study aimed to explore the difference in the expression profiles of ovarian microRNA sequences in rats in a light pollution environment and rats in a normal light environment. Rats in the control group were exposed to 12h light/dark cycles, while rats in the model group were continuously exposed to 24h light. The ovaries were extracted from the two groups of rats, and Illumina HiSeq 2500 highthroughput sequencing technology was used to detect the differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression among the two groups. Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction was used to verify the differential expression of miRNA. The present study was designed to experimentally validate the interaction between miR4215p and mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) 7 by using the dualluciferase reporter system, and to explore the expression of proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway with a lentiviral vectormediated small hairpin RNA interference against microRNA4215p. The expression of 45 miRNAs was significantly different. In total, 13 miRNAs were upregulated, of which 5 miRNA sequences were known and 8 were predicted. Furthermore, 32 miRNAs were downregulated, of which 11 miRNA sequences were known and 21 were predicted. The results of the luciferase reporter assay confirmed the targeting association between miR4215p and MAPK7. The expression levels of MAPK and genes in its downstream signaling pathways, including cFos, CREB and cMyc, were downregulated when miR4215p was overexpressed and upregulated when miR4215p was silenced. The differential expression of miRNAs may serve an important role in the development of the ovary in a light pollution environment. miR4215p may regulate ovarian growth and development by targeting the MAPK signaling pathway in light polluted rat ovaries.  
  Address Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, P.R. China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1107-3756 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30221682 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2005  
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