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Author Cruz, L.M.; Shillinger, G.L.; Robinson, N.J.; Tomillo, P.S.; Paladino, F.V.
Title Effect of light intensity and wavelength on the in-water orientation of olive ridley turtle hatchlings Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Volume 505 Issue Pages 52-56
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light pollution, associated with coastal development, poses a growing threat to sea turtles. Hatchlings are particularly affected during their crawl to the ocean since they exhibit phototaxis and may move towards or be disoriented by artificial lights. Although much is known about how hatchlings respond to artificial light while crawling to the ocean, far less is known about their response after reaching the water. Here, we investigate how hatchling olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) held in artificial pools responded to light of different wavelengths (red, 720 nm; yellow, 660 nm and green, 520 nm) and intensities (0.1–3.3 lx, mean 0.87 lx, SD = 0.85, 10.3–45.9 lx, mean 15.75 lx,SD = 7.12; 47.5–84.2 lx; mean 52.02 lx, SD = 9.11; 91.3–140.8 lx, mean 105 lx, SD = 13.24; 150.1–623 lx, mean 172.18 lx, SD = 73.42). When no light or red light below 39 lx was present, hatchlings oriented at a mean angle of 180° from true north and did not orient towards any discernable feature. However, hatchlings swam towards the light at intensities of red light above 39 lx, yellow light above 10 lx and green light above 5 lx. Our findings indicate that sea turtles will swim towards artificial lights even after reaching the water. Thus, we recommend light mitigation efforts should extend beyond nesting beaches and into the associated oceanic habitats.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0022-0981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1894
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Author Grubisic, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Manfrin, A.; Monaghan, M.T.; Hölker, F.
Title A transition to white LED increases ecological impacts of nocturnal illumination on aquatic primary producers in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume 240 Issue Pages 630-638
Keywords Plants; Ecology
Abstract The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms. While effects of the shift to LED have been investigated in nocturnal animals, its impact on primary producers is unknown. We performed three field experiments in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch to assess the impacts of a transition from high-pressure sodium (HPS) to white LED illumination (color temperature 4000 K) on primary producers in periphyton. In all experiments, we compared biomass and pigment composition of periphyton grown under a natural light regime to that of periphyton exposed to nocturnal HPS or, consecutively, LED light of intensities commonly found in urban waters (approximately 20 lux). Periphyton was collected in time series (1–13 weeks). We found no effect of HPS light on periphyton biomass; however, following a shift to LED the biomass decreased up to 62%. Neither light source had a substantial effect on pigment composition. The contrasting effects of the two light sources on biomass may be explained by differences in their spectral composition, and in particular the blue content. Our results suggest that spectral composition of the light source plays a role in determining the impacts of ALAN on periphyton and that the ongoing transition to LED may increase the ecological impacts of artificial lighting on aquatic primary producers. Reduced biomass in the base of the food web can impact ecosystem functions such as productivity and food supply for higher trophic levels in nocturnally-lit ecosystems.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1900
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Author Meier; J.M.
Title Temporal Profiles of Urban Lighting: Proposal for a research design and first results from three sites in Berlin Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal
Volume 20 Issue Pages 11-28
Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting; Society
Abstract This paper presents and experimentally applies a research design for studying the temporal dimension of outdoor artificial illumination in complex lightscapes such as those of urban centres. It contributes to filling the gap between analyses of high-resolution aerial imagery, which provide detailed but static information on the spatial composition of lightscapes, and existing methods for studying their dynamics, which measure changes at high levels of aggregation. The research design adopts a small-scale, detailed approach by using close-range time-lapse videos to document the on/off patterns of individual light sources as the night progresses. It provides a framework and vocabulary for discrete and comparative analyses of the identified temporal profiles of lighting. This allows for pinpointing similarities and differences among the dynamics of different places, nights or categories of lighting. Its application to three case studies in Berlin indicate that switch-on and switch-off times are clustered, resulting in static and dynamic phases of the night. Midnight is a temporal fault-line, after which full illumination ends as portions of the illumination are extinguished. Switch-off times and -rates differ among the three lightscapes and, especially, among four functional types of lighting that were differentiated: infrastructural and commercial units largely remain on all night, while substantial portions of architectural and indoor lighting are switched off, though at fairly different times. Such findings are valuable for studies based on data collected at specific points in time (aerial imagery, measurements), for informing and monitoring temporally oriented lighting policies, and for understanding urban dynamics at large.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1901
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Author Flowers, N.D.; Gibson, D.J.
Title Quantified effects of artificial versus natural nighttime lighting on the Eurasian grassesBothriochloa bladhii(Poaceae) andBothriochloa ischaemum(Poaceae) and the North American grassesPanicum virgatum(Poaceae) andSorghastrum nutans(Poaceae) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society Abbreviated Journal The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
Volume 145 Issue 2 Pages 147-155
Keywords Plants
Abstract Artificial nighttime lighting (light pollution) is increasing worldwide and may have undocumented consequences. In this study, we asked if artificial nighttime lighting affects the performance in monoculture of four grass species: the Eurasian Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake (Poaceae), and Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng (Poaceae); and the North American Panicum virgatum (L.) (Poaceae), and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash (Poaceae). We conducted a field pot experiment to test for the effects of artificial nighttime lighting and plant density on height, biomass, and leaf number. Height of the tallest individual per population was affected by separate interactions between species and density, light, and time. Final total biomass per individual biomass was increased under nighttime lighting, but more so at low density. Leaf number was increased by artificial nighttime lighting irrespective of species. These results suggest that artificial nighttime lighting may have previously undocumented influences on plant height, biomass, and leaf number within certain species. These findings warrant more in-depth studies into the role that artificial nighttime lighting can have on various plant species.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1095-5674 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1902
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Author Aubé, M.; Simoneau, A.; Wainscoat, R.; Nelson, L.
Title Modeling the effects of phosphor converted LED lighting to the night sky of the Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 478 Issue 2 Pages 1776-1783
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The goal of this study is to evaluate the current level of light pollution in the night sky at the Haleakala Observatory on the island of Maui in Hawaii. This is accomplished with a numerical model that was tested in the first International Dark Sky Reserve located in Mont-Mégantic National Park in Canada. The model uses ground data on the artificial light sources present in the region of study, geographical data, and remotely sensed data for: 1) the nightly upward radiance; 2) the terrain elevation; and, 3) the ground spectral reflectance of the region. The results of the model give a measure of the current state of the sky spectral radiance at the Haleakala Observatory. Then, using the current state as a reference point, multiple light conversion plans are elaborated and evaluated using the model. We can thus estimate the expected impact of each conversion plan on the night sky radiance spectrum. A complete conversion to white (LEDs) with (CCT) of 4000K and 3000K are contrasted with a conversion using (PC) amber (LEDs). We include recommendations concerning the street lamps to be used in sensitive areas like the cities of Kahului and Kihei and suggest best lighting practices related to the color of lamps used at night.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1907
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