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Author Weisbuch, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Historical perspective on the physics of artificial lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Comptes Rendus Physique Abbreviated Journal Comptes Rendus Physique  
  Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 89-112  
  Keywords History; Lighting  
  Abstract We describe the evolution of lighting technologies used throughout the ages, and how the need for improvements was such that any new technology giving better and cheaper lighting was immediately implemented. Thus, every revolution in energy sources – gas, petrol electricity – was first put to large-scale use in lighting. We describe in some detail several “ancient” techniques of scientific interest, along with their physical limitations. Electroluminescence – the phenomenon by which LEDs directly convert electricity into light – was long thought to only be of use for indicators or flat panel displays supposed to replace the bulky cathode-ray tubes. The more recent uses of LEDs were mainly for street traffic lights, car indicators, small phone displays, followed by backlighting of TV screens. LED lamps for general lighting only emerged recently as the dominant application of LEDs thanks to dramatic decrease in cost, and continuous improvements of color quality and energy conversion efficiency.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1631-0705 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1840  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review  
  Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841  
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Author Azam, C.; Le Viol, I.; Bas, Y.; Zissis, G.; Vernet, A.; Julien, J.-F.; Kerbiriou, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evidence for distance and illuminance thresholds in the effects of artificial lighting on bat activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning  
  Volume 175 Issue Pages 123-135  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Light pollution is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide. There is a crucial need to elaborate artificial lighting recommendations to mitigate its impact on wildlife. In the present study, we investigated how streetlight spatial position and light trespass impacted the use of ecological corridors by transiting bats in anthropogenic landscapes. Through a paired, in situ experiment, we estimated how streetlight distance of impact and vertical and horizontal illuminance influenced the transiting activity of 6 species and 2 genera of bats. We selected 27 pairs composed of 1 lit site and 1 control unlit site in areas practicing either part-night or full-night lighting. We recorded bat activity at 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 m, and measured vertical and horizontal light illuminance at the 5 distance steps (range = 0.1–30.2 lx). While streetlight attraction effect was mostly limited to a 10 m radius for Pipistrellus sp. and Nyctalus sp., streetlight avoidance was detected at up to 25 and 50 m for Myotis sp. and Eptesicus serotinus, respectively. Streetlight effects on Myotis sp. and Nyctalus sp. remained after lamps were turned-off. Illuminance had a negative effect on Myotis sp. below 1 lx, a mixed effect on E. serotinus, and a positive effect on the other species, although a peak of activity was observed between 1 and 5 lx for P. pipistrellus and N. leisleri. We recommend separating streetlights from ecological corridors by at least 50 m and avoiding vertical light trespass beyond 0.1 lx to ensure their use by light-sensitive bats.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1842  
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Author Benis, K.; Ferrão, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Commercial farming within the urban built environment – Taking stock of an evolving field in northern countries Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Global Food Security Abbreviated Journal Global Food Security  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages 30-37  
  Keywords Planning  
  Abstract Urban horticulture has historically contributed to the supply of fresh produce to urban dwellers and has been gaining popularity over the last years in the Global North, with growing awareness of environmental and health concerns. Over the past few years, commercial farms have been emerging in major northern cities, promoting a trend of environmentally friendly food, grown in highly efficient installations on top of or in buildings. This paper presents a scoping study, including: (i) a review of the scientific literature addressing environmental, economic and social aspects of commercial farming in urban contexts; and (ii) a consultation exercise to inform and validate findings from the review, consisting of semi-structured interviews with a few practitioners in the Netherlands. The main findings are: (1) while the recent proliferation of commercial farms in major cities shows that these new modes of urban agricultural production are gaining momentum, establishing their viability as compared to conventional agricultural practices is a challenge when it comes to scalability, resource efficiency, and cost-effectiveness; (2) as it is still a relatively new field, very few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess the impacts of commercial farming in urban areas; (3) given the complex environmental, economic and social dimensions of urban agriculture, holistic decision support tools could help integrating them in urban areas.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-9124 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1843  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gago-Calderón, A.; Hermoso-Orzáez, M.; De Andres-Diaz, J.; Redrado-Salvatierra, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluation of Uniformity and Glare Improvement with Low Energy Efficiency Losses in Street Lighting LED Luminaires Using Laser-Sintered Polyamide-Based Diffuse Covers Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 816  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract Energy saving in street lighting is garnering more interest and has become a priority in municipal management. Therefore, LED luminaires are gradually becoming prevalent in our cities. Beyond their energy/economic saving potential, quality in public lighting installations concerns aspects such as uniformity and glare which must be maintained if not improved in any installation renewal project using this technology. The high light intensity generated in a discrete point in LED packages and its directional nature result in significant deficiencies in these last two parameters. To soften these effects, translucent covers are being used as one of the most common solutions with the drawback of significant light intensity losses. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of LED luminaire’s polyamide-based optical covers manufactured with a laser-sintered process. These are designed to improve glare and uniformity output, to minimize light output reductions, and to be industrially manufactured with no increment of cost for their lighting equipment compared to conventional transparent polycarbonate solutions. A laboratory and field lighting test study has been applied to different covers with the same LED lamp and luminaire to compare the performance of three different solutions built with different polymeric materials and with different light transmission surface textures. The photometric results have been observed and discussed to demonstrate the ability to significantly improve the lighting performance of LED luminaires—illuminance and uniformity levels and discomfort and disability glare indexes— using an improved optic cover.  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1844  
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