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Author Foster, J.J.; Smolka, J.; Nilsson, D.-E.; Dacke, M.
Title How animals follow the stars Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 285 Issue 1871 Pages
Keywords Vision; Animals
Abstract Throughout history, the stars have provided humans with ever more information about our world, enabling increasingly accurate systems of navigation in addition to fuelling some of the greatest scientific controversies. What information animals have evolved to extract from a starry sky and how they do so, is a topic of study that combines the practical and theoretical challenges faced by both astronomers and field biologists. While a number of animal species have been demonstrated to use the stars as a source of directional information, the strategies that these animals use to convert this complex and variable pattern of dim-light points into a reliable 'stellar orientation' cue have been more difficult to ascertain. In this review, we assess the stars as a visual stimulus that conveys directional information, and compare the bodies of evidence available for the different stellar orientation strategies proposed to date. In this context, we also introduce new technologies that may aid in the study of stellar orientation, and suggest how field experiments may be used to characterize the mechanisms underlying stellar orientation.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, Solvegatan 35, Lund 223 62, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29367394 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1802
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Author Johns, L.E.; Jones, M.E.; Schoemaker, M.J.; McFadden, E.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.J.
Title Domestic light at night and breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of 105 000 UK women in the Generations Study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer
Volume 118 Issue Pages 600-606
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Circadian disruption caused by exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a risk factor for breast cancer and a reason for secular increases in incidence. Studies to date have largely been ecological or case-control in design and findings have been mixed. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between LAN and breast cancer risk in the UK Generations Study. Bedroom light levels and sleeping patterns at age 20 and at study recruitment were obtained by questionnaire. Analyses were conducted on 105 866 participants with no prior history of breast cancer. During an average of 6.1 years of follow-up, 1775 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: There was no association between LAN level and breast cancer risk overall (highest compared with lowest LAN level at recruitment: HR=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.15), or for invasive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.85-1.13) or in situ (HR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83-1.11) breast cancer, or oestrogen-receptor (ER) positive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.84-1.14); or negative (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.82-1.65) tumours separately. The findings did not differ by menopausal status. Adjusting for sleep duration, sleeping at unusual times (non-peak sleep) and history of night work did not affect the results. Night waking with exposure to light, occurring around age 20, was associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (HR for breast cancer overall=0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99; HR for ER-positive breast cancer=0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective cohort analysis of LAN, there was no evidence that LAN exposure increased the risk of subsequent breast cancer, although the suggestion of a lower breast cancer risk in pre-menopausal women with a history of night waking in their twenties may warrant further investigation.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 January 2018; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.359 www.bjcancer.com.
Address Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29360812 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1803
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Author Ludvigsen, M.; Berge, J.; Geoffroy, M.; Cohen, J.H.; De La Torre, P.R.; Nornes, S.M.; Singh, H.; Sorensen, A.J.; Daase, M.; Johnsen, G.
Title Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv
Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages eaap9887
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape response in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the zooplankton community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity.
Address Centre for Autonomous Operations and Systems, Department of Biology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29326985; PMCID:PMC5762190 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1806
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Author Obayashi, K.; Saeki, K.; Kurumatani, N.
Title Bedroom Light Exposure at Night and the Incidence of Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of the HEIJO-KYO Cohort Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol
Volume 187 Issue 3 Pages 427-434
Keywords Human Health; Mental Health; indoor light; geriatrics; Sleep; Sleep Disorders
Abstract Previous studies have indicated that minimal exposure to light at night (LAN) increases depression risk, even at 5 lux, in nocturnal and diurnal mammals. Although such low-level LAN may affect human circadian physiology, the association between exposure to LAN and depressive symptoms remains uncertain. In the present study, bedroom light intensity was measured objectively, and depressive symptoms were assessed, during 2010-2014 in Nara, Japan. Of 863 participants (mean age = 71.5 years) who did not have depressive symptoms at baseline, 73 participants reported development of depressive symptoms during follow-up (median, 24 months). Compared with the “dark” group (average of <5 lux; n = 710), the LAN group (average of >/=5 lux; n = 153) exhibited a significantly higher depression risk (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.14), according to a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and economic status. Further, the significance remained in a multivariable model adjusting for hypertension, diabetes, and sleep parameters (hazard ratio = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.89). Sensitivity analyses using bedroom light data with a cutoff value of >/=10 lux suggested consistent results. In conclusion, these results indicated that exposure to LAN in home settings was independently associated with subsequent depression risk in an elderly general population.
Address Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijocho, Kashiharashi, Nara 634-8521, Japan; e-mail: obayashi(at)naramed-u.ac.jp
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0002-9262 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28992236 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1815
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Author Ges, X.; Bará, S.; García-Gil, M.; Zamorano, J.; Ribas, S.J.; Masana, E.
Title Light pollution offshore: Zenithal sky glow measurements in the mediterranean coastal waters Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 210 Issue Pages 91-100
Keywords
Abstract Light pollution is a worldwide phenomenon whose consequences for the natural environment and the human health are being intensively studied nowadays. Most published studies address issues related to light pollution inland. Coastal waters, however, are spaces of high environmental interest, due to their biodiversity richness and their economical significance. The elevated population density in coastal regions is accompanied by correspondingly large emissions of artificial light at night, whose role as an environmental stressor is increasingly being recognized. Characterizing the light pollution levels in coastal waters is a necessary step for protecting these areas. At the same time, the marine surface environment provides a stage free from obstacles for measuring the dependence of the skyglow on the distance to the light polluting sources, and validating (or rejecting) atmospheric light propagation models. In this work we present a proof-of-concept of a gimbal measurement system that can be used for zenithal skyglow measurements on board both small boats and large vessels under actual navigation conditions. We report the results obtained in the summer of 2016 along two measurement routes in the Mediterranean waters offshore Barcelona, travelling 9 and 31.7 km away from the coast. The atmospheric conditions in both routes were different from the ones assumed for the calculation of recently published models of the anthropogenic sky brightness. They were closer in the first route, whose results approach better the theoretical predictions. The results obtained in the second route, conducted under a clearer atmosphere, showed systematic differences that can be traced back to two expected phenomena, which are a consequence of the smaller aerosol content: the reduction of the anthropogenic sky glow at short distances from the sources, and the slower decay rate of brightness with distance, which gives rise to a relative excess of brightness at large distances from the coastline.
Address Departament de Projectes d'Enginyeria i la Construcció, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya/BARCELONATECH, Barcelona, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevierier Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1816
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