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Author McLay, L.K.; Nagarajan-Radha, V.; Green, M.P.; Jones, T.M.
Title Dim artificial light at night affects mating, reproductive output, and reactive oxygen species in Drosophila melanogaster Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 419-428
Keywords Animals
Abstract Humans are lighting the night-time environment with ever increasing extent and intensity, resulting in a variety of negative ecological effects in individuals and populations. Effects of light at night on reproductive fitness traits are demonstrated across taxa however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are largely untested. One possible mechanism is that light at night may result in perturbed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress levels. Here, we reared Drosophila melanogaster under either dim (10 lx) light or no light (0 lx) at night for three generations and then compared mating and lifetime oviposition patterns. In a second experiment, we explored whether exposure to light at night treatments resulted in variation in ROS levels in the heads and ovaries of six, 23- and 36-day-old females. We demonstrate that dim light at night affects mating and reproductive output: 10 lx flies courted for longer prior to mating, and female oviposition patterns differed to 0 lx females. ROS levels were lower in the ovaries but not heads, of 10 lx compared with 0 lx females. We suggest that reduced ROS levels may reflect changes in ovarian physiology and cell signaling, which may be related to the differences observed in oviposition patterns. Taken together, our results indicate negative consequences for invertebrates under more stressful, urban, lit conditions and further investigation into the mechanisms driving these changes is warranted to manage invertebrate communities in a brighter future.
Address School of BioSciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29733537 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1889
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Author Dimovski, A.M.; Robert, K.A.
Title Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 497-505
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m(2) ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m(2) ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow < 0.37 x 10(-3) W/m(2) ), on melatonin production, lipid peroxidation, and circulating antioxidant capacity in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Night-time melatonin and oxidative status were determined at baseline and again following 10 weeks exposure to light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts.
Address Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29722167 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1888
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Author Rahman, S.A.; St Hilaire, M.A.; Gronfier, C.; Chang, A.-M.; Santhi, N.; Czeisler, C.A.; Klerman, E.B.; Lockley, S.W.
Title Functional decoupling of melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting in humans Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume 596 Issue 11 Pages 2147-2157
Keywords Human Health
Abstract KEY POINTS: There is assumed to be a monotonic association between melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting induced by light exposure. We tested the association between melatonin suppression and phase resetting in humans. Sixteen young healthy participants received nocturnal bright light ( approximately 9500 lux) exposure of continuous or intermittent patterns, and different durations ranging from 12 min to 6.5 h. Intermittent exposure patterns showed significant phase shifts with disproportionately less melatonin suppression. Each and every bright light stimulus in an intermittent exposure pattern induced a similar degree of melatonin suppression, but did not appear to cause an equal magnitude of phase shift. These results suggest that phase shifts and melatonin suppression are functionally independent such that one cannot be used as a proxy measure of the other. ABSTRACT: Continuous experimental light exposures show that, in general, the conditions that produce greater melatonin suppression also produce greater phase shift, leading to the assumption that one can be used as a proxy for the other. We tested this association in 16 healthy individuals who participated in a 9-day inpatient protocol by assessing melatonin suppression and phase resetting in response to a nocturnal light exposure (LE) of different patterns: (i) dim-light control (<3 lux; n = 6) or (ii) two 12-min intermittent bright light pulses (IBL) separated by 36 min of darkness ( approximately 9500 lux; n = 10). We compared these results with historical data from additional LE patterns: (i) dim-light control (<3 lux; n = 11); (ii) single continuous bright light exposure of 12 min (n = 9), 1.0 h (n = 10) or 6.5 h (n = 6); or (iii) an IBL light pattern consisting of six 15-min pulses with 1.0 h dim-light recovery intervals between them during a total of 6.5 h (n = 7). All light exposure groups had significantly greater phase-delay shifts than the dim-light control condition (P < 0.0001). While a monotonic association between melatonin suppression and circadian phase shift was observed, intermittent exposure patterns showed significant phase shifts with disproportionately less melatonin suppression. Each and every IBL stimulus induced a similar degree of melatonin suppression, but did not appear to cause an equal magnitude of phase shift. These results suggest unique specificities in how light-induced phase shifts and melatonin suppression are mediated such that one cannot be used as a proxy measure of the other.
Address Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29707782 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1887
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Author Madahi, P.-G.; Ivan, O.; Adriana, B.; Diana, O.; Carolina, E.
Title Constant light during lactation programs circadian and metabolic systems Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 35 Issue 8 Pages 1153-1167
Keywords Animals
Abstract Exposure to light at night is a disruptive condition for the adult circadian system, leading to arrhythmicity in nocturnal rodents. Circadian disruption is a risk factor for developing physiological and behavioral alterations, including weight gain and metabolic disease. During early stages of development, the circadian system undergoes a critical period of adjustment, and it is especially vulnerable to altered lighting conditions that may program its function, leading to long-term effects. We hypothesized that during lactation a disrupted light-dark cycle due to light at night may disrupt the circadian system and in the long term induce metabolic disorders. Here we explored in pups, short- and long-term effects of constant light (LL) during lactation. In the short term, LL caused a loss of rhythmicity and a reduction in the immunopositive cells of VIP, AVP, and PER1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the short term, the affection on the circadian clock in the pups resulted in body weight gain, loss of daily rhythms in general activity, plasma glucose and triglycerides (TG). Importantly, the DD conditions during development also induced altered daily rhythms in general activity and in the SCN. Exposure to LD conditions after lactation did not restore rhythmicity in the SCN, and the number of immunopositve cells to VIP, AVP, and PER1 remained reduced. In the long term, daily rhythmicity in general activity was restored; however, daily rhythms in glucose and TG remained disrupted, and daily mean levels of TG were significantly increased. Present results point out the programming role played by the LD cycle during early development in the function of the circadian system and on metabolism. This study points out the risk represented by exposure to an altered light-dark cycle during early stages of development. ABBREVIATIONS: AVP: arginine vasopressin peptide; CRY: cryptochrome; DD: constant darkness; DM: dorsomedial; LD: light-dark cycle; LL: constant light; NICUs: neonatal intensive care units; P: postnatal days; PER: period; S.E.M.: standard error of the mean; SCN: suprachiasmatic nucleus; TG: triglycerides; VIP: vasointestinal peptide; VL: ventrolateral; ZT: zeitgeber time.
Address a Facultad de Medicina , Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM , Mexico City , Mexico
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29688088 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1884
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Author Garcia-Saenz, A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Espinosa, A.; Valentin, A.; Aragones, N.; Llorca, J.; Amiano, P.; Martin Sanchez, V.; Guevara, M.; Capelo, R.; Tardon, A.; Peiro-Perez, R.; Jimenez-Moleon, J.J.; Roca-Barcelo, A.; Perez-Gomez, B.; Dierssen-Sotos, T.; Fernandez-Villa, T.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Moreno, V.; Garcia-Perez, J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Pollan, M.; Aube, M.; Kogevinas, M.
Title Evaluating the Association between Artificial Light-at-Night Exposure and Breast and Prostate Cancer Risk in Spain (MCC-Spain Study) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect
Volume 126 Issue 4 Pages 047011
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Case-Control Studies; Circadian Rhythm; Female; Humans; Incidence; Light/*adverse effects; Lighting/*adverse effects; Male; Middle Aged; Prostatic Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Risk Factors; Spain/epidemiology; Young Adult
Abstract BACKGROUND: Night shift work, exposure to light at night (ALAN) and circadian disruption may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of exposure to ALAN during sleeping time with breast and prostate cancer in a population based multicase-control study (MCC-Spain), among subjects who had never worked at night. We evaluated chronotype, a characteristic that may relate to adaptation to light at night. METHODS: We enrolled 1,219 breast cancer cases, 1,385 female controls, 623 prostate cancer cases, and 879 male controls from 11 Spanish regions in 2008-2013. Indoor ALAN information was obtained through questionnaires. Outdoor ALAN was analyzed using images from the International Space Station (ISS) available for Barcelona and Madrid for 2012-2013, including data of remotely sensed upward light intensity and blue light spectrum information for each geocoded longest residence of each MCC-Spain subject. RESULTS: Among Barcelona and Madrid participants with information on both indoor and outdoor ALAN, exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue light spectrum was associated with breast cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for highest vs. lowest tertile, OR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.17] and prostate cancer (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.03). In contrast, those exposed to the highest versus lowest intensity of outdoor ALAN were more likely to be controls than cases, particularly for prostate cancer. Compared with those who reported sleeping in total darkness, men who slept in “quite illuminated” bedrooms had a higher risk of prostate cancer (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.04), whereas women had a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.51). CONCLUSION: Both prostate and breast cancer were associated with high estimated exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue-enriched light spectrum. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1837.
Address IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29687979; PMCID:PMC6071739 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3044
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