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Author Ludvigsen, M.; Berge, J.; Geoffroy, M.; Cohen, J.H.; De La Torre, P.R.; Nornes, S.M.; Singh, H.; Sorensen, A.J.; Daase, M.; Johnsen, G.
Title Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv
Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages eaap9887
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape response in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the zooplankton community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity.
Address Centre for Autonomous Operations and Systems, Department of Biology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:29326985; PMCID:PMC5762190 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1806
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Author Johns, L.E.; Jones, M.E.; Schoemaker, M.J.; McFadden, E.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.J.
Title Domestic light at night and breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of 105 000 UK women in the Generations Study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer
Volume 118 Issue Pages 600-606
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Circadian disruption caused by exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a risk factor for breast cancer and a reason for secular increases in incidence. Studies to date have largely been ecological or case-control in design and findings have been mixed. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between LAN and breast cancer risk in the UK Generations Study. Bedroom light levels and sleeping patterns at age 20 and at study recruitment were obtained by questionnaire. Analyses were conducted on 105 866 participants with no prior history of breast cancer. During an average of 6.1 years of follow-up, 1775 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: There was no association between LAN level and breast cancer risk overall (highest compared with lowest LAN level at recruitment: HR=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.15), or for invasive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.85-1.13) or in situ (HR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83-1.11) breast cancer, or oestrogen-receptor (ER) positive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.84-1.14); or negative (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.82-1.65) tumours separately. The findings did not differ by menopausal status. Adjusting for sleep duration, sleeping at unusual times (non-peak sleep) and history of night work did not affect the results. Night waking with exposure to light, occurring around age 20, was associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (HR for breast cancer overall=0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99; HR for ER-positive breast cancer=0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective cohort analysis of LAN, there was no evidence that LAN exposure increased the risk of subsequent breast cancer, although the suggestion of a lower breast cancer risk in pre-menopausal women with a history of night waking in their twenties may warrant further investigation.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 January 2018; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.359 www.bjcancer.com.
Address Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:29360812 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1803
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Author Foster, J.J.; Smolka, J.; Nilsson, D.-E.; Dacke, M.
Title How animals follow the stars Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 285 Issue 1871 Pages
Keywords Vision; Animals
Abstract Throughout history, the stars have provided humans with ever more information about our world, enabling increasingly accurate systems of navigation in addition to fuelling some of the greatest scientific controversies. What information animals have evolved to extract from a starry sky and how they do so, is a topic of study that combines the practical and theoretical challenges faced by both astronomers and field biologists. While a number of animal species have been demonstrated to use the stars as a source of directional information, the strategies that these animals use to convert this complex and variable pattern of dim-light points into a reliable 'stellar orientation' cue have been more difficult to ascertain. In this review, we assess the stars as a visual stimulus that conveys directional information, and compare the bodies of evidence available for the different stellar orientation strategies proposed to date. In this context, we also introduce new technologies that may aid in the study of stellar orientation, and suggest how field experiments may be used to characterize the mechanisms underlying stellar orientation.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, Solvegatan 35, Lund 223 62, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:29367394 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1802
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Author Farnworth, B.; Innes, J.; Kelly, C.; Littler, R.; Waas, J.R.
Title Photons and foraging: Artificial light at night generates avoidance behaviour in male, but not female, New Zealand weta Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut
Volume 236 Issue Pages 82-90
Keywords Animals
Abstract Avoiding foraging under increased predation risk is a common anti-predator behaviour. Using artificial light to amplify predation risk at ecologically valuable sites has been proposed to deter introduced mice (Mus musculus) and ship rats (Rattus rattus) from degrading biodiversity in island ecosystems. However, light may adversely affect native species; in particular, little is known about invertebrate responses to altered lighting regimes. We investigated how endemic orthopterans responded to artificial light at Maungatautari Ecological Island (Waikato, New Zealand). We predicted that based on their nocturnal behaviour, ecology and evolutionary history, tree weta (Hemideina thoracica) and cave weta (Rhaphidophoridae) would reduce their activity under illumination. Experimental stations (n=15) experienced three evenings under each treatment (order randomised): (a) light (illuminated LED fixture), (b) dark (unilluminated LED fixture) and (c) baseline (no lighting fixture). Weta visitation rates were analysed from images captured on infra-red trail cameras set up at each station. Light significantly reduced the number of observations of cave (71.7% reduction) and tree weta (87.5% reduction). In observations where sex was distinguishable (53% of all visits), male tree weta were observed significantly more often (85% of visits) than females (15% of visits) and while males avoided illuminated sites, no detectable difference was observed across treatments for females. Sex could not be distinguished for cave weta. Our findings have implications for the use of light as a novel pest management strategy, and for the conservation of invertebrate diversity and abundance within natural and urban ecosystems worldwide that may be affected by light pollution.
Address Biological Sciences, School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Electronic address: waasur@waikato.ac.nz
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:29414377 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1856
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Author Grenis, K.; Murphy, S.M.
Title Direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Insect Science Abbreviated Journal Insect Sci
Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 770-776
Keywords Animals; Plants
Abstract Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels. Our novel findings suggest that light pollution can alter plant-insect interactions and thus may have important community-wide consequences.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1672-9609 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:29425403 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1865
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