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Author Ahmed, AK; Sadik, MA
Title Study of sky brightness profiles of Baghdad and Karbala cities in Iraq Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Science and Nature Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 18-24
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract This study was used two detectors only i.e., the human eye and photometer of Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LU) during the time of sunrise and sunset. The human eye used to determine the moon's phase. The measurements of sky brightness, by using SQM-LU, performed via two locations that covered Baghdad and Karbala in Iraq from December 2016 through March 2017 intermittently. The research focused only on light perceived by detectors and not how it happens. The aim of research is to find a mathematical formula (i.e . brightness contrast) between the sky brightness against the solar altitude by taking moon illumination as the standard reference. Analytical software based on the Python's PyEphem astrometry library was developed to calculate the solar altitude at the two locations. Finally, the formula of sky brightness obtained from this work is an important key that contributed to finding the simulated sky brightness, when the sun's altitude is known.
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Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1851
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Author Mulvin, D.
Title Media Prophylaxis: Night Modes and the Politics of Preventing Harm Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Information & Culture Abbreviated Journal Information & Culture
Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 175-202
Keywords Human Health; Society
Abstract This article develops the term “media prophylaxis” to analyze the ways technologies are applied to challenges of calibrating one’s body with its environment and as defenses against endemic, human-made harms. In recent years, self-illuminated screens (like those of computers, phones, and tablets) have been identified by scientists, journalists, and concerned individuals as particularly pernicious sources of sleep-disrupting light. By tracing the history of circadian research, the effects of light on sleep patterns, and the recent appearance of software like “f.lux,” Apple’s “Night Shift,” and “Twilight,” this article shows how media-prophylactic technologies can individualize responsibility for preventing harm while simultaneously surfacing otherwise ignored forms of chronic suffering.
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ISSN 2164-8034 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1853
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Author Brüning, A.; Kloas, W.; Preuer, T.; Hölker, F.
Title Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.
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ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1858
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Author Do, Q.-T.; Shapiro, J.N.; Elvidge, C.D.; Abdel-Jelil, M.; Ahn, D.P.; Baugh, K.; Hansen-Lewis, J.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M.D.
Title Terrorism, geopolitics, and oil security: Using remote sensing to estimate oil production of the Islamic State Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Energy Research & Social Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Research & Social Science
Volume 44 Issue Pages 411-418
Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics
Abstract As the world’s most traded commodity, oil production is typically well monitored and analyzed. It also has established links to geopolitics, international relations, and security. Despite this attention, the illicit production, refining, and trade of oil and derivative products occur all over the world and provide significant revenues outside of the oversight and regulation of governments. A prominent manifestation of this phenomenon is how terrorist and insurgent organizations—including the Islamic State group, also known as ISIL/ISIS or Daesh—use oil as a revenue source. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in production can help determine the scale of operations, technical capacity, and revenue streams. This information, in turn, can inform both security and reconstruction strategies. To this end, we use satellite multi-spectral imaging and ground-truth pre-war output data to effectively construct a real-time census of oil production in areas controlled by the ISIL terrorist group. More broadly, remotely measuring the activity of extractive industries in conflict-affected areas without reliable administrative data can support a broad range of public policy and decisions and military operations.
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ISSN 2214-6296 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1864
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Author Gwiazdsinski, L.; Straw, W.
Title Nights and Mountains. Preliminary Explorations of a Double Frontier Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Revue de géographie alpine Abbreviated Journal rga
Volume 106 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Commentary; Darkness
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ISSN 0035-1121 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1866
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