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Author Coesfeld, J.; Anderson, S.; Baugh, K.; Elvidge, C.; Schernthanner, H.; Kyba, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Variation of Individual Location Radiance in VIIRS DNB Monthly Composite Images Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 1964  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract With the growing size and use of night light time series from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (DNB), it is important to understand the stability of the dataset. All satellites observe differences in pixel values during repeat observations. In the case of night light data, these changes can be due to both environmental effects and changes in light emission. Here we examine the stability of individual locations of particular large scale light sources (e.g., airports and prisons) in the monthly composites of DNB data from April 2012 to September 2017. The radiances for individual pixels of most large light emitters are approximately normally distributed, with a standard deviation of typically 15–20% of the mean. Greenhouses and flares, however, are not stable sources. We observe geospatial autocorrelation in the monthly variations for nearby sites, while the correlation for sites separated by large distances is small. This suggests that local factors contribute most to the variation in the pixel radiances and furthermore that averaging radiances over large areas will reduce the total variation. A better understanding of the causes of temporal variation would improve the sensitivity of DNB to lighting changes.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2129  
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Author Bombieri, G.; Delgado, M. del M.; Russo, L.F.; Garrote, P.J.; López-Bao, J.V.; Fedriani, J.M.; Penteriani, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Patterns of wild carnivore attacks on humans in urban areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Attacks by wild carnivores on humans represent an increasing problem in urban areas across North America and their frequency is expected to rise following urban expansion towards carnivore habitats. Here, we analyzed records of carnivore attacks on humans in urban areas of the U.S. and Canada between 1980 and 2016 to analyze the general patterns of the attacks, as well as describe the landscape structure and, for those attacks occurring at night, the light conditions at the site of the attacks. We found that several behavioral and landscape-related factors were recurrent elements in the attacks recorded. The species for which the attack locations were available (coyote and black bear) attacked in areas with different conditions of landscape structure and artificial light. Specifically, black bears attacked more frequently in areas with abundant and aggregated vegetation cover and scarce buildings and roads, while coyotes attacked in a broader range of landscape conditions. At night, black bears attacked in generally darker areas than coyotes. By providing a comprehensive perspective of the phenomenon, this study will improve our understanding of how effective strategies aimed at reducing the frequency of risky encounters in urban areas should be developed.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2130  
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Author Dunster, G.P.; de la Iglesia, L.; Ben-Hamo, M.; Nave, C.; Fleischer, J.G.; Panda, S.; de la Iglesia, H.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleepmore in Seattle: Later school start times are associated with more sleep and better performance in high school students Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci. Adv.  
  Volume 4 Issue 12 Pages eaau6200  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Most teenagers are chronically sleep deprived. One strategy proposed to lengthen adolescent sleep is to delay secondary school start times. This would allow students to wake up later without shifting their bedtime, which is biologically determined by the circadian clock, resulting in a net increase in sleep. So far, there is no objective quantitative data showing that a single intervention such as delaying the school start time significantly increases daily sleep. The Seattle School District delayed the secondary school start time by nearly an hour. We carried out a pre-/post-research study and show that there was an increase in the daily median sleep duration of 34 min, associated with a 4.5% increase in the median grades of the students and an improvement in attendance.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2131  
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Author Lowden, A.; Lemos, N.; Gonçalves, B.; Öztürk, G.; Louzada, F.; Pedrazzoli, M.; Moreno, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Delayed Sleep in Winter Related to Natural Daylight Exposure among Arctic Day Workers Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Clocks & Sleep Abbreviated Journal Clocks & Sleep  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 105-116  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Natural daylight exposures in arctic regions vary substantially across seasons. Negative consequences have been observed in self-reports of sleep and daytime functions during the winter but have rarely been studied in detail. The focus of the present study set out to investigate sleep seasonality among indoor workers using objective and subjective measures. Sleep seasonality among daytime office workers (n = 32) in Kiruna (Sweden, 67.86° N, 20.23° E) was studied by comparing the same group of workers in a winter and summer week, including work and days off at the weekend, using actigraphs (motion loggers) and subjective ratings of alertness and mood. Actigraph analyses showed delayed sleep onset of 39 min in winter compared to the corresponding summer week (p < 0.0001) and shorter weekly sleep duration by 12 min (p = 0.0154). A delay of mid-sleep was present in winter at workdays (25 min, p < 0.0001) and more strongly delayed during days off (46 min, p < 0.0001). Sleepiness levels were higher in winter compared to summer (p < 0.05). Increased morning light exposure was associated with earlier mid-sleep (p < 0.001), while increased evening light exposure was associated with delay (p < 0.01). This study confirms earlier work that suggests that lack of natural daylight delays the sleep/wake cycle in a group of indoor workers, despite having access to electric lighting. Photic stimuli resulted in a general advanced sleep/wake rhythm during summer and increased alertness levels.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2624-5175 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2137  
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Author Morelli, F.; Mikula, P.; Benedetti, Y.; Bussière, R.; Tryjanowski, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cemeteries support avian diversity likewise urban parks in European cities: Assessing taxonomic, evolutionary and functional diversity Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Abbreviated Journal Urban Forestry & Urban Greening  
  Volume 36 Issue Pages 90-99  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to explore different components of avian diversity in two types of urban green areas, parks and cemeteries, in four European countries in relation to environmental characteristics. We studied bird species richness, functional diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness in 79 parks and 90 cemeteries located in four European countries: the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Poland.

First, we found no significant differences between cemeteries and parks in bird diversity. However, in both parks and cemeteries, only: two community metrics were affected by different environmental characteristics, including local vegetation structure and presence of human-related structures. Species richness was positively correlated with tree coverage and site size, functional diversity was unrelated to any of the measured variables, while the mean evolutionary distinctiveness score was positively correlated with tree coverage and negatively associated with the coverage of flowerbeds and number of street lamps.

Our findings can be useful for urban planning: by increasing tree coverage and site size it is possible to increase both taxonomic richness and evolutionary uniqueness of bird communities. In both parks and cemeteries, the potential association between light pollution and bird species richness was negligible. We also identified some thresholds where bird diversity was higher. Bird species richness was maximized in parks/cemeteries larger than 1.4 ha, with grass coverage lower than 65%. The evolutionary uniqueness of bird communities was higher in areas with tree coverage higher than 45%. In conclusion, the findings of this study provide evidence that cemeteries work similarly than urban parks supporting avian diversity.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1618-8667 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2141  
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