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Author Correa-Cano, M.E.; Goettsch, B.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Erosion of natural darkness in the geographic ranges of cacti Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 4347  
  Keywords Plants; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Naturally dark nighttime environments are being widely eroded by the introduction of artificial light at night (ALAN). The biological impacts vary with the intensity and spectrum of ALAN, but have been documented from molecules to ecosystems. How globally severe these impacts are likely to be depends in large part on the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution of ALAN and that of the geographic ranges of species. Here, we determine this relationship for the Cactaceae family. Using maps of the geographic ranges of cacti and nighttime stable light composite images for the period 1992 to 2012, we found that a high percentage of cactus species were experiencing ALAN within their ranges in 1992, and that this percentage had increased by 2012. For almost all cactus species (89.7%) the percentage of their geographic range that was lit increased from 1992-1996 to 2008-2012, often markedly. There was a significant negative relationship between the species richness of an area, and that of threatened species, and the level of ALAN. Cacti could be particularly sensitive to this widespread and ongoing intrusion of ALAN into their geographic ranges, especially when considering the potential for additive and synergistic interactions with the impacts of other anthropogenic pressures.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29531261; PMCID:PMC5847551 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1824  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Posch, T.; Binder, F.; Puschnig, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Systematic measurements of the night sky brightness at 26 locations in Eastern Austria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 211 Issue Pages 144-165  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract We present an analysis of the zenithal night sky brightness (henceforth: NSB) measurements at 26 locations in Eastern Austria focussing on the years 2015-2016, both during clear and cloudy to overcast nights. All measurements have been performed with ’Sky Quality Meters’ (SQMs). For some of the locations, simultaneous aerosol content measurements are available, such that we were able to find a correlation between light pollution and air pollution at those stations. For all locations, we examined the circalunar periodicity of the NSB, seasonal variations as well as long-term trends in the recorded light pollution. The latter task proved difficult, however, due to varying meteorological conditions, potential detector ’aging’ and other effects. For several remote locations, a darkening of the overcast night sky by up to 1 magnitude is recorded – indicating a very low level of light pollution –, while for the majority of the examined locations, a brightening of the night sky by up to a factor of 15 occurs due to clouds. We present suitable ways to plot and analyze huge long-term NSB datasets, such as mean-NSB histograms, circalunar, annual (’hourglass’) and cumulative (’jellyfish’) plots. We show that five of the examined locations reach sufficiently low levels of light pollution – with NSB values down to 21.8 magSQM/arcsec2 – as to allow the establishment of dark sky reserves, even to the point of reaching the ’gold tier’ defined by the International Dark Sky Association. Based on the ’hourglass’ plots, we find a strong circalunar periodicity of the NSB in small towns and villages ( <  5.000 inhabitants), with amplitudes of of up to 5 magnitudes. Using the ’jellyfish’ plots, on the other hand, we demonstrate that the examined city skies brighten by up to 3 magnitudes under cloudy conditions, which strongly dominate in those cumulative data representations. Nocturnal gradients of the NSB of 0.0–0.14 magSQM/arcsec2/hr are found. The long-term development of the night sky brightness was evaluated based on the 2012-17 data for one of our sites, possibly indicating a slight ( 2%) decrease of the mean zenithal NSB at the Vienna University Observatory.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1825  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cleary-Gaffney, M.; Coogan, A.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Limited evidence for affective and diurnal rhythm responses to dim light-at-night in male and female C57Bl/6 mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 189 Issue Pages 78-85  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated increased depression-like behaviour in various rodent experimental models exposed to dim light-at-night. In this study we set out to study the impact of dim light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours in C57Bl/6 mice. We set out specifically to examine the impact of sex on light at night's effects, as well as the impact of housing conditions. We report minimal impact of light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours, as measured by the tail suspension test, the forced swim test, the sucrose preference test and the elevated plus maze. Light-at-night was also not associated with an increase in body weight, but was associated with a decrease in the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the dentate gyrus. In summary, we conclude that experimental contextual factors, such as model species or strain, may be considerable importance in the investigation of the impact of light at night on mood-related parameters.  
  Address Department of Psychology, Maynooth University, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland. Electronic address: andrew.coogan@mu.ie  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29540316 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1826  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ngarambe, Jack; Kim, Gon url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sustainable Lighting Policies: The Contribution of Advertisement and Decorative Lighting to Local Light Pollution in Seoul, South Korea Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 10 Issue 4 Pages 1007  
  Keywords Lighting; Regulation  
  Abstract We carried out field measurements to determine the contribution of advertisement and decorative lighting to local light pollution in Seoul. We used the lighting limits set by the “Light Pollution Prevention Act”, which regulates light pollution, as measuring criteria. Our results show that both advertisement and decorative lighting are significant contributors to local light pollution in Seoul. Thirty percent of advertisement lighting measured in our study areas exceeded the legal limits. Moreover, we found that certain types of advertisement lighting are more likely to cause light pollution than the others. In addition, 73% of the decorative lighting found in our sample areas exceeded the legal limits. Based on our findings, we suggest that local light pollution policies establish a curfew time when all advertisement and decorative lighting must be completely turned off. Such an approach is essential in reducing lighting levels in outdoor environments. Furthermore, it lessens the burden on law enforcement personnel, who otherwise must ensure that advertisement and decorative lighting levels are kept within the legal limits. In light of the ongoing debate over the role of lighting in public well-being and the sustainability of cities, the present study provides a discussion on the status and management policy of light pollution caused by advertisement and decorative lighting.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1829  
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Author Spoelstra, K.; Verhagen, I.; Meijer, D.; Visser, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night shifts daily activity patterns but not the internal clock in the great tit (Parus major) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 285 Issue 1875 Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night has shown a dramatic increase over the last decades and continues to increase. Light at night can have strong effects on the behaviour and physiology of species, which includes changes in the daily timing of activity; a clear example is the advance in dawn song onset in songbirds by low levels of light at night. Although such effects are often referred to as changes in circadian timing, i.e. changes to the internal clock, two alternative mechanisms are possible. First, light at night can change the timing of clock controlled activity, without any change to the clock itself; e.g. by a change in the phase relation between the circadian clock and expression of activity. Second, changes in daily activity can be a direct response to light ('masking'), without any involvement of the circadian system. Here, we studied whether the advance in onset of activity by dim light at night in great tits (Parus major) is indeed attributable to a phase shift of the internal clock. We entrained birds to a normal light/dark (LD) cycle with bright light during daytime and darkness at night, and to a comparable (LDim) schedule with dim light at night. The dim light at night strongly advanced the onset of activity of the birds. After at least six days in LD or LDim, we kept birds in constant darkness (DD) by leaving off all lights so birds would revert to their endogenous, circadian system controlled timing of activity. We found that the timing of onset in DD was not dependent on whether the birds were kept at LD or LDim before the measurement. Thus, the advance of activity under light at night is caused by a direct effect of light rather than a phase shift of the internal clock. This demonstrates that birds are capable of changing their daily activity to low levels of light at night directly, without the need to alter their internal clock.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29593108 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1830  
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