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Author Ehrlich, D.; Schiavina, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Kemper, T.
Title Detecting spatial pattern of inequalities from remote sensing – Towards mapping of deprived communities and poverty Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication EUR 29465 EN Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages JRC113941
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Spatial inequalities across the globe are not easy to detect and satellite data have shown to be of use in this task. Earth Observation (EO) data combined with other information sources can provide complementary information to those derived from traditional methods. This research shows patterns of inequalities emerging by combining global night lights measured from Earth Observation, population density and built-up in 2015. The focus of the paper is to describe the spatial patterns that emerge by combing the three variables. This work focuses on processing EO data to derive information products, and in combining built-up- and population density with night-time lights emission. The built-up surface was derived entirely from remote sensing archives using artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques. The built-up was combined with population census data to derive population density. Also the night-time lights emission data were available from EO satellite sensors. The three layers are subsequently combined as three colour compositions based on the three primary colours (i.e. red, green and blue) to display the “spatial human settlement pattern” maps. These GHSL nightlights provide insights in inequalities across the globe. Many patterns seem to be associated with countries income. Typically, high income countries are very well lit at night, low income countries are poorly lit at night. All larger cities of the world are lit at night, those in low-income countries are often less well lit than cites in high-income countries. There are also important differences in nightlights emission in conflict areas, or along borders of countries. This report provides a selected number of patterns that are described at the regional, national and local scale. However, in depth analysis would be required to assess more precisely that relation between wealth access to energy and countries GDP, for example. This work also addresses regional inequality in GHSL nightlights in Slovakia. The country was selected to address the deprivation of the Roma minority community. The work aims to relate the information from the GHSL nightlights with that collected from field survey and census information conducted at the national level. Socio-economic data available at subnational level was correlated with nightlight. The analysis shows that despite the potential of GHSL nightlights in identifying deprived areas, the measurement scale of satellite derived nightlights at 375 x 375 m to 750 x 750 m pixel size is too coarse to capture the inequalities of deprived communities that occur at finer scale. In addition, in the European context, the gradient of inequality is not strong enough to produce strong evidence. Although there is a specific pattern of GHSL nightlights in settlements with high Roma presence, this cannot be used to identify such areas among the others. This work is part of the exploratory data analysis conducted within the GHSL team. The exploratory analysis will be followed by more quantitative assessments that will be available in future work.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher European Union Place of Publication (down) Luxembourg Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-92-79-97528-8 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2821
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Author Hall, A.L.; Davies, H.W.; Koehoorn, M.
Title Personal light-at-night exposures and components of variability in two common shift work industries: uses and implications for future research Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Work Environ Health
Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 80-87
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Objectives Shift workers' increased risk of various adverse health outcomes has been linked to light-at-night (LAN) exposure, but few studies have measured LAN exposure in workplaces. To inform future research methods, this study aimed to (i) measure shift workers' exposures to LAN across industries, occupations, and work environments and (ii) assess components of variance across different exposure groupings and metrics. Methods Between October 2015 and March 2016, 152 personal full-shift measurements were collected from 102 night shift workers in emergency health services (paramedics, dispatchers) and healthcare industries (nurses, care aides, security guards, unit clerks, and laboratory, pharmacy, and respiratory therapy staff) in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Descriptive and variance component analyses were conducted for the 23:00-05:00 period to characterize exposures using multiple metrics of potential biological relevance (median lux, 90 thpercentile lux, sum of minutes >/=30 lux, and sum of minutes >/=100 lux). Results Average exposure levels were highest in the healthcare industry. By occupation, laboratory workers and care aides displayed the highest and emergency dispatch officers displayed the lowest levels for all LAN exposure metrics. Between-group variance was large relative to within-group variance for all exposure groupings and metrics, and increased as grouping specificity increased (moving from industry to occupation). Conclusions Results from this study suggest that high-level grouping schemes may provide a simple yet effective way of characterizing individual LAN exposures in epidemiological studies of shift work. Ongoing measurement of LAN exposures and assessment of exposure variability is needed in future studies of shift workers as a means to increase sampling efficiency, reduce measurement error, and maximize researchers' ability to detect relationships where they exist.
Address School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, V6T1Z3, Canada. amyhall@mail.ubc.ca
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0355-3140 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28951937 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1754
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Author Hänel, A.; Posch, T.; Ribas, S.J.; Aubé, M.; Duriscoe, D.; Jechow, A.; Kollath, Z.; Lolkema, D.E.; Moore, C.; Schmidt, N.; Spoelstra, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 205 Issue Pages 278-290
Keywords skyglow
Abstract Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earthâ??s atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the â??Sky Quality Meterâ? continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1731
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Author Neri, L.; Coscieme, L.; Giannetti, B.F.; Pulselli, F.M.
Title Imputing missing data in non-renewable empower time series from night-time lights observations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 84 Issue Pages 106-118
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Emergy is an environmental accounting tool, with a specific set of indicators, that proved to be highly informative for sustainability assessment of national economies. The empower, defined as emergy per unit time, is a measure of the overall flow of resources used by a system in order to support its functioning. Continuous time-series of empower are not available for most of the world countries, due to the large amount of data needed for its calculation year by year. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap by means of a model that facilitates reconstruction of continuous time series of the non-renewable component of empower for a set of 57 countries of the world from 1995 to 2012. The reconstruction is based on a 3 year global emergy dataset and on the acknowledged relationships between the use of non-renewables, satellite observed artificial lights emitted at night, and Gross Domestic Product. Results show that this method provides accurate estimations of non-renewable empower at the country scale. The estimation model can be extended onward and backward in time and replicated for more countries, also using higher-resolution satellite imageries newly available. Besides representing an important advancement in emergy theory, this information is helpful for monitoring progresses toward Sustainable Development and energy use international goals.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1706
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Author Mammola, S.; Isaia, M.; Demonte, D.; Triolo, P.; Nervo, M.
Title Artificial lighting triggers the presence of urban spiders and their webs on historical buildings Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning
Volume 180 Issue Pages 187-194
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract Different spider species living in the urban environment spin their webs on building facades. Due to air pollution, web aggregations entrap dirt particles over time, assuming a brownish-greyish colouration and thus determining an aesthetic impact on buildings and street furniture. In Europe, the most common species causing such an aesthetic nuisance is Brigittea civica (Lucas) (Dictynidae). In spite of the socio-economical relevance of the problem, the ecological factors driving the proliferation of this species in the urban environment are poorly described and the effectiveness of potential cleaning activities has never been discussed in scientific literature. Over one year, we studied the environmental drivers of B. civica webs in the arcades of the historical down-town district of Turin (NW-Italy). We selected a number of sampling plots on arcade ceilings and we estimated the density of B. civica webs by means of digital image analysis. In parallel, we collected information on a number of potential explanatory variables driving the arcade colonization, namely artificial lighting at night, substrate temperature, distance from the main artificial light sources and distance from the river. Regression analysis showed that the coverage of spider webs increased significantly at plots with higher light intensity, with a major effect related to the presence of historical lampposts with incandescent lamps rather than halogen lamps. We also detected a seasonal variation in the web coverage, with significant higher values in summer. Stemming from our results, we are able to suggest good practices for the containment of this phenomenon.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2002
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