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Author Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Towards a Comprehensive City Emission Function (CCEF) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT  
  Volume 205 Issue Pages 253-266  
  Keywords Lighting; Skyglow  
  Abstract The comprehensive city emission function (CCEF) is developed for a heterogeneous light-emitting or blocking urban environments, embracing any combination of input parameters that characterize linear dimensions in the system (size and distances between buildings or luminaires), properties of light-emitting elements (such as luminous building façades and street lighting), ground reflectance and total uplight-fraction, all of these defined for an arbitrarily sized 2D area. The analytical formula obtained is not restricted to a single model class as it can capture any specific light-emission feature for wide range of cities. The CCEF method is numerically fast in contrast to what can be expected of other probabilistic approaches that rely on repeated random sampling. Hence the present solution has great potential in light-pollution modeling and can be included in larger numerical models. Our theoretical findings promise great progress in light-pollution modeling as this is the first time an analytical solution to city emission function (CEF) has been developed that depends on statistical mean size and height of city buildings, inter-building separation, prevailing heights of light fixtures, lighting density, and other factors such as e.g. luminaire light output and light distribution, including the amount of uplight, and representative city size. The model is validated for sensitivity and specificity pertinent to combinations of input parameters in order to test its behavior under various conditions, including those that can occur in complex urban environments. It is demonstrated that the solution model succeeds in reproducing a light emission peak at some elevated zenith angles and is consistent with reduced rather than enhanced emission in directions nearly parallel to the ground.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher ScienceDirect Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1757  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author S Fotios, J Uttley url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminance required to detect a pavement obstacle of critical size Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 50 Issue Pages 390-404  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting  
  Abstract This paper investigates the illuminance needed to detect trip hazards for pedestrians walking after dark. In previous work, it was assumed that the critical obstacle height is 25 mm: further review of accident data and foot clearance data suggests instead that 10 mm is the critical height. Eye tracking records suggest a tendency for obstacles to be detected approximately 3.4 m ahead. Interpretation of obstacle detection data suggests horizontal photopic illuminances of up to 0.9 lux are required for peripheral detection of a 10 mm obstacle 3.4 m ahead, according to the scotopic/photopic ratio of the lighting and the age of the observer.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1765  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zheng, Q.; Jiang, R.; Wang, K.; Huang, L.; Ye, Z.; Gan, M.; Ji, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring the trajectory of urban nighttime light hotspots using a Gaussian volume model Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 65 Issue Pages 24-34  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Urban nighttime light hotspot is an ideal representation of the spatial heterogeneity of human activities within a city, which is sensitive to regional urban expansion pattern. However, most of previous studies related to nighttime light imageries focused on extracting urban extent, leaving the spatial variation of radiance intensity insufficiently explored. With the help of global radiance calibrated DMSP-OLS datasets (NTLgrc), we proposed an innovative framework to explore the spatio-temporal trajectory of polycentric urban nighttime light hotspots. Firstly, NTLgrc was inter-annually calibrated to improve the consistency. Secondly, multi-resolution segmentation and region-growing SVM classification were employed to remove blooming effect and to extract potential clusters. At last, the urban hotspots were identified by a Gaussian volume model, and the resulting parameters were used to quantitatively depict hotspot features (i.e., intensity, morphology and centroid dynamics). The result shows that our framework successfully captures hotspots in polycentric urban area, whose Ra2 are over 0.9. Meanwhile, the spatio-temporal dynamics of the hotspot features intuitively reveal the impact of the regional urban growth pattern and planning strategies on human activities. Compared to previous studies, our framework is more robust and offers an effective way to describe hotspot pattern. Also, it provides a more comprehensive and spatial-explicit understanding regarding the interaction between urbanization pattern and human activities. Our findings are expected to be beneficial to governors in term of sustainable urban planning and decision making.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1771  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Min, J.-young; Min, K.-bok url  doi
openurl 
  Title Outdoor light at night and the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors: a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal Journal of Affective Disorders  
  Volume 227 Issue Pages 199-205  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Background

Outdoor light at night (LAN) is an increasingly prevalent type of environmental pollution. Studies have demonstrated that outdoor LAN can disrupt circadian rhythms, potentially contributing to insomnia, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic changes in humans. We investigated the association of outdoor LAN with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in South Korean adults.

Methods

This study used data from the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey, a representative sample dataset. Study population consisted of 113,119 participants for the assessment of depressive symptoms and 152,159 participants for the assessment of suicidal behavior. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (depressive symptoms, score of > 16). Suicidal behaviors were defined as the experience of suicidal ideation or attempt. Outdoor LAN was estimated by satellite data from the National Centers for Environmental Information.

Results

Participants with depressive symptoms or history of suicidal behaviors were more likely to have exposure to outdoor LAN than those without depressive symptoms or suicidal behaviors. Compared with adults living in areas exposed to the lowest outdoor LAN, those living in areas exposed to the highest levels had higher likelihood depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.15–1.46) or suicidal behaviors (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.16–1.39). Significant dose-response relationships were observed between outdoor LAN and the odds of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors.

Conclusion

Outdoor LAN was found to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors, suggesting that it may be an environmental contributor to mental health problems.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0165-0327 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1777  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 705-713  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783  
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