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Author Watson, L.A.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Hosken, I.T.; McGlashan, E.M.; Anderson, C.; Lack, L.C.; Lockley, S.W.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Cain, S.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Increased sensitivity of the circadian system to light in delayed sleep-wake phase disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (down) The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract KEY POINTS: This is the first study to demonstrate an altered circadian phase shifting response in a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) demonstrate greater sensitivity of the circadian system to the phase delaying effects of light. Increased circadian sensitivity to light is associated with later circadian timing within both control and DSWPD groups. DSWPD patients had a greater sustained pupil response after light exposure. Treatments for DSWPD should consider sensitivity of the circadian system to light as a potential underlying vulnerability, making patients susceptible to relapse. ABSTRACT: Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) exhibit delayed sleep-wake behavior relative to desired bedtime, often leading to chronic sleep restriction and daytime dysfunction. The majority of DSWPD patients also display delayed circadian timing in the melatonin rhythm. Hypersensitivity of the circadian system to phase delaying light is a plausible physiological basis for DSWPD vulnerability. We compared the phase shifting response to a 6.5-h light exposure ( approximately 150 lux) between male patients with diagnosed DSWPD (n = 10; aged 22.4 +/- 3.3 years) and male healthy controls (n = 11; aged 22.4 +/- 2.4 years). Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured under controlled conditions in dim light (<3 lux) before and after light exposure. Correcting for the circadian time of the light exposure, DSWPD patients exhibited 31.5% greater phase delay shifts than healthy controls. In both groups, a later initial phase of the melatonin rhythm was associated with greater magnitude of phase shifts, indicating that increased circadian sensitivity to light may be a factor that contributes to delayed phase, even in non-clinical groups. DSWPD patients also had reduced pupil size following the light exposure, and showed a trend towards increased melatonin suppression during light exposure. These findings indicate that, for patients with DSWPD, assessment of light sensitivity may be an important factor that can inform behavioral therapy, including minimization of exposure to phase-delaying night-time light. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30281150 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2026  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ouyang, J.Q.; Davies, S.; Dominoni, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Hormonally mediated effects of artificial light at night on behavior and fitness: linking endocrine mechanisms with function Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (down) The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 221 Issue Pt 6 Pages  
  Keywords Human Health; Alan; Glucocorticoid; Hormones; Light pollution; Melatonin; Metabolism; Sleep; Stress; Thyroid; Urban ecology  
  Abstract Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates. We then focus on four endocrine axes that might be affected by artificial light at night (ALAN): pineal, reproductive, adrenal and thyroid. Throughout, we highlight key findings, rather than performing an exhaustive review, in order to emphasize knowledge gaps that are hindering progress on proposing impactful and concrete plans to ameliorate the negative effects of ALAN. We discuss these findings with respect to impacts on human and animal health, with a focus on the consequences of anthropogenic modification of the night-time environment for non-human organisms. Lastly, we stress the need for the integration of field and lab experiments as well as the need for long-term integrative eco-physiological studies in the rapidly expanding field of light pollution.  
  Address Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29545373 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1817  
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Author Wittenbrink, N.; Ananthasubramaniam, B.; Munch, M.; Koller, B.; Maier, B.; Weschke, C.; Bes, F.; de Zeeuw, J.; Nowozin, C.; Wahnschaffe, A.; Wisniewski, S.; Zaleska, M.; Bartok, O.; Ashwal-Fluss, R.; Lammert, H.; Herzel, H.; Hummel, M.; Kadener, S.; Kunz, D.; Kramer, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title High-accuracy determination of internal circadian time from a single blood sample Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (down) The Journal of Clinical Investigation Abbreviated Journal J Clin Invest  
  Volume 128 Issue 9 Pages 3826-3839  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is a fundamental and pervasive biological program that coordinates 24-hour rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior, and it is essential to health. Whereas therapy adapted to time of day is increasingly reported to be highly successful, it needs to be personalized, since internal circadian time is different for each individual. In addition, internal time is not a stable trait, but is influenced by many factors, including genetic predisposition, age, sex, environmental light levels, and season. An easy and convenient diagnostic tool is currently missing. METHODS: To establish a validated test, we followed a 3-stage biomarker development strategy: (a) using circadian transcriptomics of blood monocytes from 12 individuals in a constant routine protocol combined with machine learning approaches, we identified biomarkers for internal time; and these biomarkers (b) were migrated to a clinically relevant gene expression profiling platform (NanoString) and (c) were externally validated using an independent study with 28 early or late chronotypes. RESULTS: We developed a highly accurate and simple assay (BodyTime) to estimate the internal circadian time in humans from a single blood sample. Our assay needs only a small set of blood-based transcript biomarkers and is as accurate as the current gold standard method, dim-light melatonin onset, at smaller monetary, time, and sample-number cost. CONCLUSION: The BodyTime assay provides a new diagnostic tool for personalization of health care according to the patient's circadian clock. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung, Germany (FKZ: 13N13160 and 13N13162) and Intellux GmbH, Germany.  
  Address Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universitat Berlin, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Laboratory of Chronobiology, Berlin, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9738 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29953415; PMCID:PMC6118629 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2194  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Manning, R., Newman, P., Barber, J., Monz, C., Hallo, J., & Lawson, S. openurl 
  Title Principles for Studying and Managing Natural Quiet and Natural Darkness in National Parks and Other Protected Areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (down) The George Wright Forum Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 350-362  
  Keywords Conservation; Planning; Regulation  
  Abstract A substantial body of research on natural quiet and natural darkness in national

parks, and protected areas more broadly, has been reported in the scientific and professional literature in recent years. However, this literature is widely scattered over many academic and professional journals that cover both the natural and social sciences. To help integrate and synthesize this body of work, we surveyed this diverse literature and collected representative examples in a book (Manning et al. 2018). We conclude our book with a series of principles

that we have distilled to help guide park managers to protect natural quiet and natural darkness. This paper presents those principles.

Much of our book focuses on national parks in the United States, and in the remainder of this paper the phrase “the national parks” refers to them. But we feel that the principles we have derived from our review of the scientific and professional literature on natural quiet and natural darkness apply equally well to a variety of parks and protected areas in the United States and elsewhere.

Natural quiet is generally defined as the sounds of nature uninterrupted by human-caused noise, and natural darkness is darkness unaffected by human-caused light. It is important to note that natural quiet and natural darkness do not necessarily mean absolute quiet or darkness, as the natural world often generates sounds of its own (e.g., birds calling, wind blowing,

rivers rushing) and has sources of illumination (e.g., the glow of celestial bodies and the fluorescence of some plants and animals).
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2297  
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Author Taufique, S.K.T.; Prabhat, A.; Kumar, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminated night alters hippocampal gene expressions and induces depressive-like responses in diurnal corvids Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (down) The European Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Eur J Neurosci  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night induces circadian disruptions and causes cognitive impairment and mood disorders; yet very little is known about the neural and molecular correlates of these effects in diurnal animals. We manipulated the night environment and examined cellular and molecular changes in hippocampus, the brain region involved in cognition and mood, of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to 12 h light (150 lux): 12 h darkness (0 lux). Diurnal corvids are an ideal model species with cognitive abilities at par with mammals. Dim light (6 lux) at night (dLAN) altered daily activity:rest pattern, reduced sleep and induced depressive-like responses (decreased eating and self-grooming, self-mutilation and reduced novel object exploration); return to an absolute dark night reversed these negative effects. dLAN suppressed nocturnal melatonin levels, however, diurnal corticosterone levels were unaffected. Concomitant reduction of immunoreactivity for DCX and BDNF suggested dLAN-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis and compromised neuronal health. dLAN also negatively influenced hippocampal expression of genes associated with depressive-like responses (bdnf, il-1beta, tnfr1, nr4a2), but not of those associated with neuronal plasticity (egr1, creb, syngap, syn2, grin2a, grin2b), cellular oxidative stress (gst, sod3, cat1) and neuronal death (caspase2, caspase3, foxo3). Furthermore, we envisaged the role of BDNF and showed epigenetic modification of bdnf gene by decreased histone H3 acetylation and increased hdac4 expression under dLAN. These results demonstrate transcriptional and epigenetic bases of dLAN-induced negative effects in diurnal crows, and provide insights into the risks of exposure to illuminated nights to animals including humans in an urban setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address IndoUS Center for Biological Timing Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007, India  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0953-816X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30218624 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2010  
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