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Author Cho, CH; Yoon, HK; Kang, SG; Kim, L; Lee, E; Lee, HJ
Title Impact of Exposure to Dim Light at Night on Sleep in Female and Comparison with Male Subjects Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) Psychiatry Investigation Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Investig
Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages 520-530
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin.

Methods:

The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2). Salivary melatonin was measured before and after sleep on each night. For further investigation, the female and male subjects of our previous study were collected (48 subjects), and differences according to gender were compared.

Results:

dLAN during sleep was significantly associated with decreased total sleep time (TST; F=4.818, p=0.039), sleep efficiency (SE; F=5.072, p=0.034), and Stage R latency (F=4.664, p=0.041) for female subjects, and decreased TST (F=14.971, p<0.001) and SE (F=7.687, p=0.008), and increased wake time after sleep onset (F=6.322, p=0.015) and Stage R (F=5.031, p=0.03), with a night-group interaction (F=4.579, p=0.038) for total sample. However, no significant melatonin changes. There was no significant gender difference of the impact of dLAN on sleep, showing the negative changes in the amount and quality of sleep and the increase in REM sleep in the both gender group under 10 lux condition.

Conclusion:

We found a negative impact of exposure to dLAN on sleep in female as well as in merged subjects. REM sleep showed a pronounced increase under 10 lux than under 5 lux in merged subjects, suggesting the possibility of subtle influences of dLAN on REM sleep.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1845
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Author Lee, H.
Title Do We Use Artificial Light Appropriately? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) Psychiatry Investigation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue 12 Pages
Keywords Commentary; Human Health
Abstract
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2314
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Author Foster, J.J.; Smolka, J.; Nilsson, D.-E.; Dacke, M.
Title How animals follow the stars Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 285 Issue 1871 Pages
Keywords Vision; Animals
Abstract Throughout history, the stars have provided humans with ever more information about our world, enabling increasingly accurate systems of navigation in addition to fuelling some of the greatest scientific controversies. What information animals have evolved to extract from a starry sky and how they do so, is a topic of study that combines the practical and theoretical challenges faced by both astronomers and field biologists. While a number of animal species have been demonstrated to use the stars as a source of directional information, the strategies that these animals use to convert this complex and variable pattern of dim-light points into a reliable 'stellar orientation' cue have been more difficult to ascertain. In this review, we assess the stars as a visual stimulus that conveys directional information, and compare the bodies of evidence available for the different stellar orientation strategies proposed to date. In this context, we also introduce new technologies that may aid in the study of stellar orientation, and suggest how field experiments may be used to characterize the mechanisms underlying stellar orientation.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, Solvegatan 35, Lund 223 62, Sweden
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29367394 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1802
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Author Spoelstra, K.; Verhagen, I.; Meijer, D.; Visser, M.E.
Title Artificial light at night shifts daily activity patterns but not the internal clock in the great tit (Parus major) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 285 Issue 1875 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night has shown a dramatic increase over the last decades and continues to increase. Light at night can have strong effects on the behaviour and physiology of species, which includes changes in the daily timing of activity; a clear example is the advance in dawn song onset in songbirds by low levels of light at night. Although such effects are often referred to as changes in circadian timing, i.e. changes to the internal clock, two alternative mechanisms are possible. First, light at night can change the timing of clock controlled activity, without any change to the clock itself; e.g. by a change in the phase relation between the circadian clock and expression of activity. Second, changes in daily activity can be a direct response to light ('masking'), without any involvement of the circadian system. Here, we studied whether the advance in onset of activity by dim light at night in great tits (Parus major) is indeed attributable to a phase shift of the internal clock. We entrained birds to a normal light/dark (LD) cycle with bright light during daytime and darkness at night, and to a comparable (LDim) schedule with dim light at night. The dim light at night strongly advanced the onset of activity of the birds. After at least six days in LD or LDim, we kept birds in constant darkness (DD) by leaving off all lights so birds would revert to their endogenous, circadian system controlled timing of activity. We found that the timing of onset in DD was not dependent on whether the birds were kept at LD or LDim before the measurement. Thus, the advance of activity under light at night is caused by a direct effect of light rather than a phase shift of the internal clock. This demonstrates that birds are capable of changing their daily activity to low levels of light at night directly, without the need to alter their internal clock.
Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29593108 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1830
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Author Dananay, K.L.; Benard, M.F.
Title Artificial light at night decreases metamorphic duration and juvenile growth in a widespread amphibian Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. B
Volume 285 Issue 1882 Pages 20180367
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) affects over 20% of the earth's surface and is estimated to increase 6% per year. Most studies of ALAN have focused on a single mechanism or life stage. We tested for indirect and direct ALAN effects that occurred by altering American toads' (Anaxyrus americanus) ecological interactions or by altering toad development and growth, respectively. We conducted an experiment over two life stages using outdoor mesocosms and indoor terraria. In the first phase, the presence of ALAN reduced metamorphic duration and periphyton biomass. The effects of ALAN appeared to be mediated through direct effects on toad development, and we found no evidence for indirect effects of ALAN acting through altered ecological interactions or colonization. In the second phase, post-metamorphic toad growth was reduced by 15% in the ALAN treatment. Juvenile-stage ALAN also affected toad activity: in natural light, toads retreated into leaf litter at night whereas ALAN toads did not change behaviour. Carry-over effects of ALAN were also present; juvenile toads that had been exposed to larval ALAN exhibited marginally increased activity. In this time frame and system, our experiments suggested ALAN's effects act primarily through direct effects, rather than indirect effects, and can persist across life stages.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1951
Permanent link to this record