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Author Kozaki, T.; Hidaka, Y.; Takakura, J.-Y.; Kusano, Y.
Title Suppression of salivary melatonin secretion under 100-Hz flickering and non-flickering blue light Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Physiological Anthropology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol Anthropol
Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 23
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Bright light at night is known to suppress melatonin secretion. Novel photoreceptors named intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are mainly responsible for projecting dark/bright information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus and thus regulating the circadian system. However, it has been shown that the amplitude of the electroretinogram of ipRGCs is considerably lower under flickering light at 100 Hz than at 1-5 Hz, suggesting that flickering light may also affect the circadian system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated light-induced melatonin suppression under flickering and non-flickering light. METHODS: Twelve male participants between the ages of 20 and 23 years (mean +/- S.D. = 21.6 +/- 1.5 years) were exposed to three light conditions (dim, 100-Hz flickering, and non-flickering blue light) from 1:00 A.M. to 2:30 A.M., and saliva samples were obtained just before 1:00 A.M. and at 1:15, 1:30, 2:00, and 2:30 A.M. RESULTS: A repeated measures t test with Bonferroni correction showed that at 1:15 A.M., melatonin concentrations were significantly lower following exposure to non-flickering light compared with dim light, whereas there was no significant difference between the dim and 100-Hz flickering light conditions. By contrast, after 1:30 A.M., the mean melatonin concentrations were significantly lower under both 100-Hz flickering and non-flickering light than under dim light. CONCLUSION: Although melatonin suppression rate tended to be lower under 100-Hz flickering light than under non-flickering light at the initial 15 min of the light exposure, the present study suggests that 100-Hz flickering light may have the same impact on melatonin secretion as non-flickering light.
Address Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Nishikyushu University, Kanzaki, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1880-6791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30340620 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2039
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Author Lee, S.; Kakitsuba, N.; Katsuura, T.
Title Do green-blocking glasses enhance the nonvisual effects of white polychromatic light? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Physiological Anthropology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol Anthropol
Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 29
Keywords Human Health; Vision
Abstract BACKGROUND: It is well known that light containing the blue component stimulates the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and plays a role in melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction. In our previous studies, we verified that simultaneous exposure to blue and green light resulted in less pupillary constriction than blue light exposure. Hence, we hypothesized that the nonvisual effects of polychromatic white light might be increased by blocking the green component. Therefore, we conducted an experiment using optical filters that blocked blue or green component and examined the nonvisual effects of these lights on pupillary constriction and electroencephalogram power spectra. METHODS: Ten healthy young males participated in this study. The participant sat on a chair with his eyes facing an integrating sphere. After 10 min of light adaptation, the participant's left eye was exposed to white pulsed light (1000 lx; pulse width 2.5 ms) every 10 s with a blue-blocking glasses, a green-blocking glasses, or control glasses (no lens), and pupillary constriction was measured. Then, after rest for 10 min, the participant was exposed a continuous white light of 1000 lx with a blue- or green-blocking glasses or control glasses and electroencephalogram was measured. RESULTS: Pupillary constriction with the blue-blocking glasses was significantly less than that observed with the green-blocking glasses. Furthermore, pupillary constriction under the green-blocking glasses was significantly greater than that observed with the control glasses. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in the green component of light facilitated pupillary constriction. Thus, the effects of polychromatic white light containing blue and green components on ipRGCs are apparently increased by removing the green component.
Address Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1880-6791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30563575; PMCID:PMC6299521 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2153
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Author Hänel, A.; Posch, T.; Ribas, S.J.; Aubé, M.; Duriscoe, D.; Jechow, A.; Kollath, Z.; Lolkema, D.E.; Moore, C.; Schmidt, N.; Spoelstra, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 205 Issue Pages 278-290
Keywords skyglow
Abstract Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earthâ??s atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the â??Sky Quality Meterâ? continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1731
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Author Kocifaj, M.
Title Towards a Comprehensive City Emission Function (CCEF) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT
Volume 205 Issue Pages 253-266
Keywords Lighting; Skyglow
Abstract The comprehensive city emission function (CCEF) is developed for a heterogeneous light-emitting or blocking urban environments, embracing any combination of input parameters that characterize linear dimensions in the system (size and distances between buildings or luminaires), properties of light-emitting elements (such as luminous building façades and street lighting), ground reflectance and total uplight-fraction, all of these defined for an arbitrarily sized 2D area. The analytical formula obtained is not restricted to a single model class as it can capture any specific light-emission feature for wide range of cities. The CCEF method is numerically fast in contrast to what can be expected of other probabilistic approaches that rely on repeated random sampling. Hence the present solution has great potential in light-pollution modeling and can be included in larger numerical models. Our theoretical findings promise great progress in light-pollution modeling as this is the first time an analytical solution to city emission function (CEF) has been developed that depends on statistical mean size and height of city buildings, inter-building separation, prevailing heights of light fixtures, lighting density, and other factors such as e.g. luminaire light output and light distribution, including the amount of uplight, and representative city size. The model is validated for sensitivity and specificity pertinent to combinations of input parameters in order to test its behavior under various conditions, including those that can occur in complex urban environments. It is demonstrated that the solution model succeeds in reproducing a light emission peak at some elevated zenith angles and is consistent with reduced rather than enhanced emission in directions nearly parallel to the ground.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ScienceDirect Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1757
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Author Bará, S.; Escofet, J.
Title On lamps, walls, and eyes: The spectral radiance field and the evaluation of light pollution indoors Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal J of Quant Spect and Rad Trans
Volume 205 Issue Pages 267-277
Keywords Instrumentation; Light pollution; Artificial light at night; Light field; Radiance field; Radiometry; Photometry
Abstract Light plays a key role in the regulation of different physiological processes, through several visual and non-visual retinal phototransduction channels whose basic features are being unveiled by recent research. The growing body of evidence on the significance of these effects has sparked a renewed interest in the determination of the light field at the entrance pupil of the eye in indoor spaces. Since photic interactions are strongly wavelength-dependent, a significant effort is being devoted to assess the relative merits of the spectra of the different types of light sources available for use at home and in the workplace. The spectral content of the light reaching the observer eyes in indoor spaces, however, does not depend exclusively on the sources: it is partially modulated by the spectral reflectance of the walls and surrounding surfaces, through the multiple reflections of the light beams along all possible paths from the source to the observer. This modulation can modify significantly the non-visual photic inputs that would be produced by the lamps alone, and opens the way for controlling—to a certain extent—the subject's exposure to different regions of the optical spectrum. In this work we evaluate the expected magnitude of this effect and we show that, for factorizable sources, the spectral modulation can be conveniently described in terms of a set of effective filter-like functions that provide useful insights for lighting design and light pollution assessment. The radiance field also provides a suitable bridge between indoor and outdoor light pollution studies.
Address Área de Óptica, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2163
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