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Author Smith, H.M.; Neaves, L.E.; Divljan, A.
Title Predation on cicadas by an Australian Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus based on DNA evidence Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Australian Zoologist Abbreviated Journal Australian Zoologist
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Historically, reports of insectivory in family Pteropodidae have largely been anecdotal and thought to be an incidental corollary of flying-foxes feeding on plant products. More recent direct observations of flying-foxes catching and consuming insects, as well as advances in techniques that increase our ability to detect dietary items, suggest that this behaviour may be deliberate and more common than previously thought. Usually, multiple insects are consumed, but it appears that flying-foxes hunt and eat them one at a time. However, we have collected and photographed oral ejecta pellets under trees with high flying-fox activity, some containing evidence of multiple masticated insects. Further genetic analysis proved that these pellets came from Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pteropus poliocephalus. We propose that flying-foxes use an array of insect feeding strategies, most likely in response to variation in insect abundance and activity, as well as abiotic factors such as light and temperature.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0067-2238 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2148
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Author Firebaugh, A.; Haynes, K.J.
Title Light pollution may create demographic traps for nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology
Volume 34 Issue Pages 118-125
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light pollution impacts both intra- and inter-specific interactions, such as interactions between mates and predator–prey interactions. In mobile organisms attracted to artificial lights, the effect of light pollution on these interactions may be intensified. If organisms are repelled by artificial lights, effects of light pollution on intra- and inter-specific interactions may be diminished as organisms move away. However, organisms repelled by artificial lights would likely lose suitable habitat as light pollution expands. Thus, we investigated how light pollution affects both net attraction or repulsion of organisms and effects on intra- and inter-specific interactions. In manipulative field studies using fireflies, we found that Photuris versicolor and Photinus pyralis fireflies were lured to artificial (LED) light at night and that both species were less likely to engage in courtship dialogues (bioluminescent flashing) in light-polluted field plots. Light pollution also lowered the mating success of P. pyralis. P. versicolor is known to prey upon P. pyralis by mimicking the flash patterns of P. pyralis, but we did not find an effect of light pollution on Photuris–Photinus predator–prey interactions. Our study suggests, that for some nocturnal insects, light-polluted areas may act as demographic traps, i.e., areas where immigration exceeds emigration and inhibition of courtship dialogues and mating reduces reproduction. Examining multiple factors affecting population growth in concert is needed to understand and mitigate impacts of light pollution on wildlife.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1978
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Author Girard, M.B.; Kasumovic, M.M.; Elias, D.O.
Title The role of red coloration and song in peacock spider courtship: insights into complex signaling systems Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Research on animal signaling enhances our understanding of links between sensory processing, decision making, behavior, and evolution. Studies of sexually-selected signals may be particularly informative as mate choice provides access to decision patterns in the way that courtship leads to an easily observable behavioral output in choosers, i.e., mating. Male peacock spiders have some of the most elaborate and varied courtship displays known among animals. Particularly striking to human observers is the diversity of red, orange, and yellow ornaments that males exhibit across the genus. The primary objective of our research was to investigate how these visual ornaments interact with vibratory songs to affect female mating behavior of one species, Maratus volans. Accordingly, we conducted mating trials under a series of experimentally manipulated vibratory and lighting conditions. Contrary to expectation, chromatic characteristics of longer wavelength ornaments are not driving female mate choice decisions, despite their extensive presence on male fans. Instead, our results suggest that contrast is important to females. Additionally, we found that vibratory signals were not necessary and did not increase mating rates. Our study demonstrates the intricacies inherent in complex signaling systems.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2027
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Author Emmer, K.M.; Russart, K.L.G.; Walker, W.H.; Nelson, R.J.; DeVries, A.C.
Title Effects of light at night on laboratory animals and research outcomes Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Behavioral Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Behav Neurosci
Volume 132 Issue 4 Pages 302-314
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light has substantial influences on the physiology and behavior of most laboratory animals. As such, lighting conditions within animal rooms are potentially significant and often underappreciated variables within experiments. Disruption of the light/dark cycle, primarily by exposing animals to light at night (LAN), disturbs biological rhythms and has widespread physiological consequences because of mechanisms such as melatonin suppression, sympathetic stimulation, and altered circadian clock gene expression. Thus, attention to the lighting environment of laboratory animals and maintaining consistency of a light/dark cycle is imperative for study reproducibility. Light intensity, as well as wavelength, photoperiod, and timing, are all important variables. Although modern rodent facilities are designed to facilitate appropriate light cycling, there are simple ways to modify rooms to prevent extraneous light exposure during the dark period. Attention to lighting conditions of laboratory animals by both researchers and research care staff ensures best practices for maintaining animal welfare, as well as reproducibility of research results. (PsycINFO Database Record
Address Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0735-7044 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29952608 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1957
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Author Souman, J.L.; Tinga, A.M.; Te Pas, S.F.; van Ee, R.; Vlaskamp, B.N.S.
Title Acute alerting effects of light: a systematic literature review Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res
Volume 337 Issue Pages 228-239
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects and to assess to what extent they depend on other factors, such as time of day, exposure duration and sleep pressure. In total, we identified 74 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distribution, or both were manipulated, and the effects on behavioral measures of alertness were evaluated, either subjectively or measured in performance tasks. The results show that increasing the intensity or the color temperature of polychromatic white light in general has been found to increase subjective ratings of alertness, though a substantial proportion of these studies failed to find significant effects. There is little evidence in the literature that these subjective alerting effects of light also translate into improvements on performance measures of alertness. For monochromatic or narrowband light exposure, some studies have shown improvement in reaction time tasks with exposure to blue light, but generally this was not accompanied by changes in subjective alertness. Thus, the alerting effects of light are far less clear than often suggested. We suggest that in future studies more attention should be paid to other factors that may influence the effects of light, such as chronotype, circadian phase, homeostatic state and prior light history.
Address Philips Research (Department Brain, Behavior & Cognition), Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28912014 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1727
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